G-14

The G- 14 group of European football clubs (G -14 ) was a merger of various European football clubs. It was founded on 14 October 1998 with the aim to represent the interests of members to UEFA and FIFA, and initially comprised 14 members, whence herleitete the name. Since 2002, the G- 14 18 members and saw itself as a precursor of an employers' organization in football. On 15 January 2008, the dissolution of the G -14 was adopted. It was replaced by, founded on 21 January 2008 European Club Association.

The primary goal of the G -14 was to be a common language organ of major European clubs towards the economy, but especially the various football associations in the international club football, because the view of the members of important decisions were taken without their participation for the clubs. This should be prevented by the G -14. In particular, the group presented a representation of the economic interests of the clubs dar. In fact, the G -14 could be attributed to this role, she was not yet the official representative of the clubs.

In the spring of 2006, the G -14 were in favor of a closed Champions League, that is, there would be no qualification on the national championships, but it would still take the same teams. This proposal met with UEFA, FIFA and the other clubs on rejection.

Members

The G -14 was established by initially 14 clubs. The formation of the group went since the early 1990s, informal meetings of eight clubs each with at least five European titles ahead (AC Milan, Ajax, Bayern Munich, FC Barcelona, ​​FC Liverpool, Inter Milan, Juventus and Real Madrid). As of 1996, took six other clubs in these meetings in part (Borussia Dortmund, FC Porto, Manchester United, Olympique Marseille, Paris SG and PSV Eindhoven ). 2000, the G -14 officially founded.

Since among the 14 founding members, are three Italian, but were only two Spanish, English, French and German clubs, were in August 2002, a further four clubs (Bayer Leverkusen, Arsenal FC, Valencia CF and Olympique Lyon) was added so that the total number of members now represent over 18.

While great emphasis was placed on a number of successes in the European Cup history in the eight originally entered into cooperation associations. However, the G -14 came from this basic principle with the selection of the other six founding members, and certainly in its expansion from 2002; so with Bayer Leverkusen, Olympique Marseille and Paris SG are clubs on the composite, the only European champions once were, the G -14 member Olympique Lyon has never even able to win a European title. On the other hand, found associations that were able to celebrate great European achievements (such as Benfica Lisbon and Nottingham Forest ) are not admitted into the G- 14th Also no Eastern European clubs were member of the group.

Sometime in 2007, the G -14 should be extended from 18 to 40 teams. It should be from the 22 countries with the highest recorded (after the UEFA five year ranking ) the best placed each of the past five years club.

Existing members could be excluded, if a club off and not immediately rises again from the first division of his country three times in a row does not participate in European competitions or damage the reputation of the G -14. For the exclusion of a member required a 75 percent majority. For instance, could Borussia Dortmund can be excluded after the 2005/06 season, as the club for the last time in 2002 at the UEFA Cup took part. Also an exclusion Juventus Turin due to its role in football scandal in Italy in 2005/ 06 would have been possible. From the Exclusion law, however, use was never made.

Structure and voting rights

The G -14 had an office in Brussels. Chief executive was since 2000 the Swiss Thomas Kurth.

The highest decision making organ of the G -14 was the quarterly held General Assembly, to which each member club sent a delegate. In most cases, these were high-profile individuals in sports management of the clubs. The General Assembly designated the governing body of the group. Major decisions, it required the unanimous decisions of the Assembly.

The voting rights of the members were calculated on the basis of acquired European Cup title; ever victory in the Champions League ( or previously in the European Champions Cup ) two voices, each victory in the UEFA Cup and the European Cup Winners' Cup a voice. There were three basic votes of the founding members and a base for voice later joined members.

With the help of a special scheme should be limited in creation of the G -14 the influence of individual clubs; so each founding member first received a maximum of 16 votes, even if it would actually have due to its past successes more voting rights must. However, this scheme only for success before the creation of the G -14 - after 2000 won titles could also lead to an increase in the voting rights beyond 16. This scheme can be interpreted as " Lex Real" because Real Madrid was the only club affected; until 2000 Madrid had won eight Champions League title (16 points ) and two UEFA Cup titles (two points). Together with the three basic voting rights, the association would therefore receive 21 votes. Last was the votes of Real Madrid 18 - of which 16 (rather than 21) votes to the creation of the G - 14 and two votes for the Champions League victory in 2002.

Financing

The financing of the G -14 was supported by the members, so the clubs themselves, the budget shares, however, were carried to 50 % in equal measure to 50 % based on the voting weight of the clubs within the G-14.

Resolution

By an agreement of FIFA and UEFA with the clubs to pay compensation to the clubs for the positions of internationals etc., the most affected top clubs pledged to withdraw several complaints and resolve their interest grouping G -14 ..

Criticism

The G -14 faced considerable criticism on the part of associations, but also from other clubs exposed.

Firstly, the representation of the clubs was done democratically in any way and therefore could not take lay claim to speak for the width of the clubs, especially as its members only recruited from seven countries. As mentioned, it was not directed convening of objective athletic or sports historical guidelines. Since they were aware of any Central and Eastern European clubs, they could not be considered as representative of all European professional football clubs.

The question was also the democratic structure of the G- 14; the basic idea is to make the voting rights of past successes dependent, although a legitimate as transparent weighting factor introduced dar. However, If all 15 remaining German Bundesliga the Association joined, so would this total only 23 votes (15 basic votes, four votes for the UEFA Cup wins ( twice Borussia Mönchengladbach, once each FC Schalke 04 and Eintracht Frankfurt), two votes for victory in the Cup Winners' Cup (Werder Bremen and Hamburger SV ) and other two votes for the HSV because of his victory in the European Cup of Champions 1983) had. Thus, the 15 clubs would have come more than the three existing German G -14 clubs only two votes. This was the democratic structure of the organization in question. This criticism was reinforced by the to be regarded as "elders rights," however questionable democratic as sporty three basic votes for founding members.

It was also not yet accepted for this reason FIFA UEFA as a negotiating partner.

It was also commented that the financial strength of members not invariably resulted through sporting successes and their implementation in appropriate sponsor contracts, but was also achieved by acting as patrons financiers. Thus a pioneering role in the design of contests and money distribution keys was not to be regarded as justified.

The G -14 was criticized for not acting accordingly on the contrary to the good of the sport, but only their own economic interests. This became clear in the leaked strategy paper "Vision Europe"

"Football has become a business. To ensure further economic growth, the product of international football must be further developed and made ​​accessible to the modern consumer, taking into account the fact that it is mainly the clubs that provide the product. "

In particular, in the proposals for the design of the Champions League, this view of things found again:

A re- introduction of the second round was required. This had previously been abolished due to lack of appeal and acceptance among the viewers. They would, however, more games promise (and thus revenue through premiums and TV revenue ) and it would make outsiders to gain surprise successes against financially far superior teams in return game. Martin Samuel, sports columnist for the London Times rewrote it this

" Given every advantage imaginable, quiet Goliath David wants to fight with at arm tied. "

With reference to past merits also the leadership of the G -14 members should be corroborated morally. This also reflected the qualification process for the Champions League resist, are not even qualified automatically for the numerous national champion, teams from other leagues but can qualify to 4th place itself.