al-Adil I.

Abu -Bakr Malik al- ʿ Adil I. (Arabic: الملك العادل سيف الدين أبو بكر بن أيوب, DMG al -Malik al - ʿ Adil Sayf al - Dīn Abū Bakr b Ayyub, . * June 1145; † August 1218 ) was the third Sultan of the Ayyubids in Egypt from 1200 to 1218. in Christian tradition he is often called " Saphadin ".

Abu Bakr was entrusted during his brother Saladin (1171-1193) the government with important tasks. He was from 1183 to 1186 governor of Aleppo. He led, among other things, during the Third Crusade negotiations with Richard I the Lionheart of England. The bar hebraeus According to a report, compiled later Saladin had asked in October 1191 when Richard the Lionheart for the purpose of shared peace to a marriage between his brother and the Princess Johanna Plantagenet, the couple should this rule be awarded over Jerusalem. This project had but ultimately failed due to the refusal of Abu -Bakr, to perform the required conversion to the Christian faith.

After the death of Saladin Abu Bakr Upper Mesopotamia (al- Jazeera ) was assigned as the government district. He allied himself with his nephew az- Zahir Ghazi of Aleppo, proposed in 1193 an uprising of Zengids in Mosul down and moved as early as 1196 in Damascus, where he overthrew his nephew al - Afdal. Around 1200, he moved against the resistance of his nephews in Egypt, and sat down by the successor of the Sultan al - Aziz. Abu Bakr then got up from under the throne name of al -Malik al - Adil Sultan of Egypt and the overlord of the Ayyubids. He soon succeeded to subdue the Ayyubid princes of his suzerainty. Although al - Adil has sought to promote trade with the Italian maritime republics, including a commercial treaty was concluded with Pisa, the relations with the Christians deteriorated. So landed in May 1218 a crusader army in Egypt. In this situation, al -Malik al - Adil died in August 1218. He sat before his death, his eldest son al - Kamil as Sultan of Egypt and transferred al - Ashraf Upper Mesopotamia and al - Mu'azzam Syria. This division of the Ayyubidenreiches led under al - Kamil (1218-1238) again to power struggles among the Ayyubids.

His children include:

  • Al - Kamil Muhammad II (* 1177/80, † 1238 ), Sultan of Egypt
  • Al - Ashraf Musa (* 1180, † 1237 ), Lord of al - Jazeera and Damascus
  • Dhaifa
  • Al - Mu'azzam ' Isa († 1227 ), Lord of Damascus
  • Al - Faiz
  • Al - Muzaffar I.
  • As- Salih Ismail († 1250), Lord of Damascus