Camping ( also camping, from Latin campus " field") is a form of tourism. The tourists stay in this case, in tents, caravans or motorhomes. If camped in tents, so we also speak of tents.

Camping was the beginning of the 20th century is now a popular and widespread holiday and travel form. Meanwhile, opportunities can be found worldwide, campsites, often in scenic locations to stay (even in nature reserves and national parks, for example ). Campgrounds provide - as well as some pitches - sanitary and electrical supply facilities. Camping is available for every taste, from simple lawn with washhouse to highly comfortable facilities with supermarkets, restaurants, private swimming pool as well as television and internet offer ( usually wireless ). Overnight stays in campsites are cheaper than in hotels generally; prices, however, have moved closer to the coveted holiday destinations and offers comfortable during the high season. In most European countries outside camping facilities provided for this purpose ( Wild camping ) is not permitted or is permitted only under strict conditions.

  • 6.1 Germany
  • 6.2 Austria
  • 6.3 Switzerland


The term camping covers a very wide range of activities. What they all have in common, not to stay in buildings, but the time in the great outdoors or on - to spend earmarked for the camping facilities - close to nature as possible. The term camping encloses survival trips, many of which result only a small survival kit or even just located on the body clothing is carried, simple camping in the great outdoors, where the campers only simple auxiliary items such as a tent, sleeping bag, cooking utensils and simple tools such as pocket knives and things like that uses up to stay with highly comfortable caravans or mobile homes at no less comfortable campsites.

Camping can be done simply for the sake of the campsite. Often it is but also with sports or other activities such as fishing, swimming, hiking, sightseeing and various other activities at a campsite - connected - eg crickets. As special forms of camping on the one hand, the duration of camping and on the other hand stay in camps are to be designated. In continuous camping, the campers have settled permanently with his caravan on a campsite and visited these also usually several times a year or spends extended periods of time. As a camp, however, a stationary facility is called, which does have a provisional character, still does not compare in the real sense with the camping is because fixed dwellings be used as a camp for the night usually.

History of camping

Camping emerged in the early 20th century, after the First World War, the upswing with the Roaring Twenties found its way into Germany. For the first time the average consumer could afford vacations previously had employees no statutory leave entitlement. It was obvious to regenerate inexpensive in nature. We camped relatively simple, with tents and simple objects for recreation such as folding kayaks. The result was the so-called "weekend movement."

The development was interrupted by the Second World War, after the war, and with the onset of the economic miracle, the broad masses could afford to leave again. For the first time cars were rebuilt and equipped with camping utensils. The invented in 1931 caravan began its triumphal march. It originated concepts like "substance villa" or "House on the hook ". In the 1960s, a company specializing in camping industry was born. It Extra vehicles like the VW bus for camping were rebuilt, the camping was engineered and comfortable through innovations such as the on-board toilet. In recent decades, the range of discount has been constantly expanded, both in terms of the number of campsites as well as the manufacturers of vehicles and equipment.

Portable camping

Under mobile camping is defined as the frequent (usually daily ) exchange of overnight location. This can be achieved in different ways.

Backpacking (English Backpacking ) is the most popular type of mobile Campens. Here, the camper has all his personal belongings carried in a backpack. The equipment is set out to have as little weight to carry the luggage even over long distances on foot can. Backpackers wander widely across the region, while the square of the night is often selected in the short term. The cost of the equipment is higher, the lower for the night at campgrounds for generally due to the low weight.

In North America, widespread is the canoe camping. In principle, it is similar to backpacking except that the equipment is carried not in a backpack, but in a canoe or a kayak. In this case, a lot more baggage to be transported. The route is geared to the busy waters.

On Bicycle tours camping works the same as when backpacking. The bicycle is used as a transport for the equipment carried, but at the same time greater distances than can be covered when backpacking. It can be taken more luggage than walking, and the use of a bicycle trailer for transporting luggage, children or even pets such as Dogs is more and more widespread.

Finally, the motorcycle offers the possibility to change the overnight stop daily. It is more like the camping on bike rides because the "normal camping " with a caravan or camper - trailer, since here the space for luggage is limited. Therefore, the same equipment is often used as in backpacking because it is lightweight and compact in dimensions.

And last but not least a motorhome and caravan each team allows the "mobile " camping.


The word " glamping " stands for " glamourous camping" and refers to an oriented luxury form of camping. The equipment of caravans and tents as well as the service offered are very high quality and will meet the demands of a luxury affluent audiences. The trend comes from the USA and the UK.

Legal situation

Such permission of camping designed differently from country to country, sometimes from community to community. The reason for this is the statutory regulatory authority, which is different in each country. Thus, the regulation of camping in Italy, for example, a matter for the local authorities in Germany to determine state and federal laws, where camping is permitted and where not.

In most European countries Camping is permitted only on officially approved campsites and, where appropriate, with the consent of the landowner on private land.


In Germany bans set on public roads to traffic regulations or traffic regulations. In mobile homes and camping trailers the unique stay in a caravan ( trailer coupled with the towing vehicle ) or in a motorhome on service areas and parking is tolerated. Outside of campgrounds or private property of the residence is permitted with a camper / caravan only for the " restoration of Driving '. However, it may here be no build-up of steps, chairs / tables, barbecues or eg awnings. Caravans may be in Germany on public transport reason up to 14 days in one place and then have to like any normal car trailer in accordance with § 12 paragraph be removed 3b of the Highway Code. For mobile homes, the same conditions as for caravans apply for overnight stays. Only the parking is permitted free of times for campers like a car. While there is the term " Wild camping " in German law does not, but a stay on the public highways, which goes beyond what is necessary to restore the ability to drive level, is considered unauthorized use and constitutes a special offense

Find the camping place in the woods or on private land, so please other provisions in the foreground. Thus can be forest or nature conservation laws to offenses such as criminal damage and trespassing affected various provisions of offenses under the (state ). This also applies to typical side acts such as the lighting of a bonfire or the leaving of waste.

Where camping is expressly permitted nor prohibited in the wild either, it is permissible with the permission of the property owner. Expressly prohibited is the tents in many protected areas. In Baden- Württemberg ( § 80 NatSchG ), Brandenburg (§ 22 BbgNatSchG ) and Schleswig -Holstein ( § 37 LNatSchG ) prohibit the provincial nature conservation laws, camping in the wild, ie outside the closed districts and outside of forests, generally. For violations fines can be imposed. In the states of Brandenburg, Mecklenburg- Vorpommern and Schleswig -Holstein, the country's conservation laws allow non-motorized travelers ( walkers, cyclists, canoeing hikers, riders, etc.) expressly set up for a night tent in the wild (excluding forests ), unless there are special protection provisions to the contrary and the tents " private law allowed", so it is permitted by the property owner. In Mecklenburg- Vorpommern national parks, national natural monuments and nature reserves are generally excluded from the tent right in coastal dunes and beach ridges, camping is prohibited. In Schleswig- Holstein is the tents in coastal dunes, prohibited on beach ridges and on the sea beach.

Whether spending the night without a tent (eg with tarp, bivy sack, sleeping bag, hammock ) is covered in free nature of the general legal entry into the country's conservation laws and thus does not require approval, judged differently. It is in any case does not constitute a misdemeanor


Wild camping is prohibited in Austria. Permitted Camping is permitted only on excellent seats. A unique stay in a mobile home is in transit outside of campgrounds ia permitted, but not in Vienna, Tyrol and not in the national parks and conservation areas. As in Germany, while putting up tables and chairs outdoors is prohibited.


In Switzerland, there is a special form of the so-called everyman's right that it allows each person to spend the night in the open air, where it takes no damage occurs or waste left behind. This right is, however, limited in many cantons by prohibitions, usually it is also pointed out by road signs.

Scandinavia, Scotland

In the Nordic countries, except Denmark and in Scotland the right to use public access areas in nature has evolved throughout history. This so-called everyman's right allows, under certain conditions, to camp temporarily on uncultivated land, even if this land is privately owned. Conditions are, for example, that nothing is damaged and no waste is left behind. And get closer than 150 yards of an inhabited house (also cabins include it) to be able to camp, the consent of the residents must be obtained. Driving on uncultivated land with motor vehicles is not permitted.


For many countries around the world, tourism is generally and camping in particular an important source of income.


In 2012, about 7.5 million tourist arrivals were (5 percent more than in 2011 ) counted on German campgrounds with a total of 26.1 million nights ( 4 per cent more than in 2011 ), according to the Federal Statistical Office. Guests from Germany made ​​with 6.1 million arrivals (about 80 percent of all arrivals ) and 22 million overnight stays (about 84 percent of all nights) most of the camping tourists. A total of 1.4 million arrivals and 4.1 million overnight stays were counted from abroad. These results include only the tourist camping and not the term camping. German tourists stayed an average of 3.6 nights much longer than foreign visitors, who spent an average of 2.8 nights on campsites. In 2013 there were 2,869 campsites in Germany with a number of about 228,000 cars. In August 2013 stayed 6071985 people on the German camp.

The Dutch were in 2003 (more recent figures unavailable) by far the most important group of guests among the 1.1 million foreign tourists Camping: Every second foreign guest (54 percent) to German camps came from the Netherlands. Of the 3.3 million overnight stays by foreign visitors accounted for as many as 64 percent to the Dutch. By far, the Danes were at the second point (7 percent of overnight stays by foreign guests), followed by the campers from the United Kingdom and Belgium (4 percent each). In 2011, the taxable turnover of around campsites 0.412 billion euros without VAT with an annual turnover of 17,500 euros.


In Austria stayed in the years 2005 and 2006 a total of 4.93 and 4.67 million people at campsites, while the province of Carinthia was at 1.79 and 1.67 million nights just before Tirol leader with 1.34 and 1.25 million.

Overall, 5.4 percent fewer people stayed in 2006 at a campsite than in the previous year. With regard to the total number of foreign tourists in the country Germany is a leader with a share of about 56 percent of all guests.


Within Switzerland were German and Dutch in 2010 with 33 percent of all nights after the Swiss, with 53% of all overnight stays at number two and three.

2010, a total 3.328 million overnight stays were recorded, in 2009 there were 3.65 million overnight stays by 10.2% more. 28 percent of all guests stayed in Ticino (about 921,000 ), followed by the Valais (about 523,000 overnight stays or 16 %) and the Bernese Oberland follow (about 365,000 overnight stays or 11 %).

The average visitor stayed 3.5 days in Switzerland, the Ticino recorded an average value of 4.5 days, the Central Switzerland, however, only 2.4 days ..

Camping equipment

Usually used when camping and trekking:

  • Tent (including tent nails / pegs )
  • Sleeping bag
  • Sleeping pad or air mattress
  • Cooker