Cardinal mark

With cardinal system is referred to in shipping a system for marking of obstructions or shoals by means of more significant direction navaids. Here are tons (also Untiefentonnen, Cardinal tons, tons of wreckage or danger tons called ), beacons or simple rods used. The marking of fairways with a lateral concrete curing is done after Lateralsystem.

The range to the obstacle is divided into four quadrants, each corresponding to a compass direction. The respective quadrant is marked by a cardinal buoy whose labeling indicates where it is relative to the obstacle and on which side it is therefore to happen. In practice, it should be noted that not all the four quadrants must be identified and in most cases only one of the quadrants is referred to.

Design and lighting

Cardinals navaids have horizontally striped top marks as two cones and are available in colors black and yellow. As lighting can Cardinal tonnes a white flashes in a 60 flashes per minute wear ( shortcut: Q - - quick) or rapid flashes in a 120 flashes per minute ( very quick VQ abbreviation). The light intervals also specify the quadrant. The identifier of the ton in the north quadrant is not interrupted sparkling fire; light signs of tons of the remaining quadrants correspond to the numbers on a clock. The identifier for the Südquadranten is attached to highlight an additional flashing. To distinguish between closely spaced obstacles are alternately fired with Q or VQ.

  • North: black-yellow; both cone point upwards (quasi north ), continuous scintillating light
  • East: black-yellow- black; both are cone with the base to each other ( visually like the letter "O" for east), groups of 3 flashes
  • South: yellow and black; both cones pointing down ( almost to the south ), groups of 6 flashing and a flashing
  • West: yellow-black - yellow; both cones are ( visually and the rotated by 90 ° Letter " W" for West), groups of 9 flashes with the tip of one another.

Cones and colors correspond so that the cone in the direction of the Black show (up, outside, bottom or inside).

Based on this characteristic shape with two masthead characters and firing with groups of white Blinks also the also the labeling of navigation obstacles serving isolated danger signs are designed, however, with two black balls as top marks, groups of two blinks and also with horizontal red instead of yellow stripe. .

New danger zones

For new danger spots at least one of the navaid is twice interprets and optionally provided with a racon the symbol " D".