City walls of Paris

The Paris city walls were the mounting rings around the French capital. There are essentially seven distinguished such a wall rings. One counts as follows:. According to the hypothetical Gallic town fortification, the Gallo-Roman, then two medieval city walls of Charles V, those of Louis XIII, known as " the yellow trenches " ( Fosses jaunes ), and finally the priority tax purposes serving Wall of general tax farmers ( Fermiers généraux ) and the Thiers'sche wall (up to 1919).

With the exception of the period from 1670 ( demolition of the wall of Louis XIII. Order of Louis XIV ) to 1785, the beginning of construction of the wall of the ring Fermiers généraux (also called Mur d' Octroi ) was Paris so until the 20th century always of surrounded a wall wreath. In the course of population growth, this attachment ring moved farther and farther to the outside, and left that only relatively small structural traces: Some control pavilions, created by Claude- Nicolas Ledoux about remember the Mur des Fermiers généraux.

Rather, the attachment rings live as street rings on:

  • The Grands Boulevards mark the place of the city walls of Louis XIII. ,
  • The outer boulevards ( boulevards extérieurs ) généraux the boundary wall of the Fermiers.
  • The boulevards of Maréchaux denote the inner link road Thiers'schen the city fortifications.
  • The Boulevard périphérique originated in the 1960s in the context of the associated zone non Aedificandi.


In Julius Caesar called an oppidum Paris, so a fortified settlement on a His island (Id est oppidum Parisiorum, quod est in insula positum Fluminis Sequanae ). Whether this is really the present Ile de la Cité, but is controversial. Is secured: 285 AD the inhabitants fled from Lutetia from the left bank to the Île de la Cité and fortified its east side with stone material from the Arenes de Lutece. From the medieval city wall from the 10th century no traces were found. More is known about the wall of King Philip Augustus. It was built from 1190 to 1213, enclosing 253 acres of land on both sides of the Seine.

From 1356 to 1383 was among the kings Charles V and Charles VI. built a new walled city of France. She wrapped 439 acres of land and expanded its predecessor building only on the right bank, mainly around the Marais district of Paris. On the occasion of the Wall by Louis XIII it was demolished. The latter phase of construction took place from 1633 to 1636 after plans by Jacques Lemercier. Even this expanded the city walls only on the right bank. The demolition took place starting in 1670. The city wall of Fermiers generaux enclosed 3370 acres of land. He served the levying of indirect taxes ( excise tax ) on goods that were brought to Paris. The demolition was carried out by expanding the boundaries of Paris up to the Thiers'schen wall rim in 1860. Latter was a favorite project of the Citizen-King Louis -Philippe. This powerful, 33 -kilometer-long city wall with its 94 bastions, 17 gates was actually already at the time of its establishment completely anachronistic. It was razed in 1919.