Clinker brick

Clinker bricks, which are fired under high temperatures so that the pores of the material to be burned are closed by the beginning of the sintering process. Clinker hardly absorb water and are very durable. The name comes from the fact that during impact of two clinker, a high sound.


Clinker made ​​from fireclay, feldspars and white or red firing clay minerals. Through various surcharges for raw mass is varied color shades can be achieved. For the manufacture of bricks, the starting materials are mixed with clay and water and industrially formed in an extrusion process. For special applications, for example in the restoration of historic monuments hand-molded brick are used. In the subsequent drying reduces the water content to about 3% in "good clinkers " he should be below 2%. Clinker then at 1100 to 1300 ° C in a tunnel furnace (previously in kilns ) fired in contrast to 800 to 1000 ° C at normal bricks.

Clinker are now standardized in Germany according to DIN 105. Differences are clinker ( KMz ) with a density of 2.0 kg / dm ³ to 2.2 kg / dm ³ and vertically perforated brick ( KHLz ) with a density of 1.6 kg / dm ³ to 1.8 kg / dm ³. Because of the low air void fraction, all clinker on a relatively poor insulating properties. Channel clinker are standardized 4051 "Channel clinker " according to DIN. Bricks are frost resistant and are therefore particularly suitable for facades. The formats of the clinker bricks are standardized in 1053 "Masonry " according to DIN. Basis for the different formats is the normal size ( NF) with length 240 mm, width 115 mm and height 71 mm (other dimensions see Brick ). For architectural design architects can also produce bricks with special dimensions.

When used for facades diverse form elements can be built without encouraging (eg brick expressionism, see picture). Clinker were formerly often used in civil engineering, for example in bridge construction, the construction of sewers and water structures in masonry sluices or shafts or in road construction as clinkers.

Also, the sculptor Ernst Barlach worked in clinker, which were then made ​​after his design.


Peat-fired brick

A particular color, especially greens, receives the clinker as it is burned with peat. Famous Buildings with peat-fired brick are the Chile House and the Broschek house in Hamburg. The last still operating annular kiln for clinker Torfbrand is located in the village of nominal ( Ostfriesland) in Aurich. The clinker is marketed under the name Wittmunder peat-fired brick.

Greppiner clinker

As Greppiner a hard clinker burnt yellow brick is referred to, by which - given a closed surface significantly higher temperatures when burning the clinker - in comparison to normal brick. Such clinker were the late 19th century mostly used for veneering railway buildings.

Munsterlander coal fire

The Munsterlander coal fire characterize classic clinker tones with distinctive Kohlebrandwülsten or light, sooty Schmauchfahnen on the focal skin. To produce regionally mined clays from Münster and genuine Ruhr coal are used. The burning process has prevailed with the beginning of industrialization. The Munsterlander coal fire characterizes the facades of numerous industrial buildings of the late 19th and early 20th century. An example is the Zollern mine in Dortmund. The former Prince- Bishop's Residence "Schloss Münster " and the former State Archives Münster, Westphalia current Department of State Archives North Rhine-Westphalia are veneered with brick characteristic of the coal fire.