College (Latin collegium Academiae, learning community ) are educational institutions of different types in countries where English is the official or primary language of communication, such as in England and the United States. Partial very different educational institutions are called college. In the United States, a college is often so called, but can as well define a community college other institution for vocational training. In the UK and Ireland including both a school and a college or even just part of it can be understood.
In France Collège école secondaire denotes the corresponding roughly to the secondary level; at the German College is a regionally used term for a different institution of learning, such as vocational college.
- 2.1 ratio of Universities and Colleges
- 3.1 The College as a new type of university in Germany
- 3.2 The German College
- 3.3 The German Community College
United States, Canada
College as a university
In most cases, the term college in the U.S. and Canada referred to a tertiary educational institution, ie a university. The Canadian tertiary education system is essentially the same U.S.. In Canada, subject, in contrast to the United States virtually all colleges and universities a unified state quality control system and most of them are members of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada ( AUCC ), which is why the standard of Canadian universities is considered to be more uniform than those in the U.S.. As a rule, will be offered at colleges price-based ( A - ) professional training and university research-based education, which is why - even for very large differences in the quality of teaching and thus the call ( university ranking ) - the degree from a university generally regarded as superior is than that at a college. It is also usually a subsequent change of course -based training (Bachelor) to research-based studies (Bachelor Honours) virtually impossible only in exceptional cases by subsequent coursework and exams.
As the only universally valid system for assessing the quality of a university, its teaching and graduates applicable in the United States and Canada, the university ranking. For example, refer to the long-term average, the Harvard University in the United States and the McGill University in Canada respectively at # 1 (World's Best Universities ).
Above all such institutions are run as college that offer so-called Undergraduate Studies, ie courses that usually after three (more often) or four ( rarely) years to a Bachelor or comparable as first degree. The at least four years of undergraduate honors ( academic degree program with a Bachelor 's thesis ) is practically offered only at universities.
On one hand, colleges may be stand alone devices, ie institutions that only offer these undergraduate programs. More rarely, with college but also a training each legally independent part of a larger university be meant, which offer undergraduate degrees, while the University is also offering as related master's programs, the admission requirements for the Master can be quite different. For example, often at elite universities, a university undergraduate honors, with at least cum laude, required.
This also results in the current training practice in the U.S. or in Canada: Larger universities, who need to work in science and research, consist of several faculties and offer a variety of scientific and educational programs, universities are usually ( University), while facilities that education -oriented Three -Years - (more common ) or Four -Years - ( rare ) (specialist) offer bachelor's degree programs are approved as college. However, some larger universities designate, meanwhile, for historical reasons, furthermore, as college (eg the University Dartmouth College).
In the first year, students often colloquially as freshmen ( freshmen ) are locally referred to, less informally as (freely translated) freshmen (first year students), in the second year as sophomores, in the third as juniors ( juniors ) and the fourth as seniors ( seniors ). An exception are the military academies, the plebes instead or in addition, the names, use yearlings, cows and firsties.
If they want to after receipt of the first academic degree, the Bachelor, further study, the Bachelor graduates can apply for admission to a graduate school or at a university for a master's degree, also in order to acquiring the PhD, the one to bear doctoral degree justified. However, the admission requirements are very different. Some top universities require, for example, next to a university undergraduate honors degree in addition a comprehensive motivation letter, written references from previous professors and an academic master's thesis proposal. For occupational close subjects such as clinical medicine, business studies (business) or law (law ), change to the rule to a professional school, where there are also bachelor's degrees in these fields.
Studying at college is traditionally stronger academically structured as at universities in German speaking countries before the Bologna process; there is compulsory attendance. In the U.S. there are both state and private colleges. At both institutions are tuition fees ( fees and tuition ) charged ( approximately between $ 2,000 and $ 30,000 at elite institutions from $ 35,000 a year), in many cases 100% supported by government financing of studies, depending on the family financial situation, called Federal Student Aid or Student Financial Aid, the fees at private colleges are usually higher than in state.
In addition to the described form colleges also offer two-year courses, for example, to state-funded community colleges, with typically vocational programs that are completed with Certificates, Diplomas or an associate degree. The latter, so-called associate programs, are the provision of occupational -specific knowledge, rarely also in preparation to attend a four -year colleges and replace at the same time often the first two years of study. Community colleges offer transfer programs that allow students to enter after only two years in the third year of a state college and after two more years of study to earn a bachelor's degree. The permeable transition into university scientific undergraduate honors degree programs, however, is not provided.
Great Britain and Ireland
In the UK and Ireland, the term college is used very differentiated and designated according to the context of different institutions of the education system:
- Some private secondary schools ( public schools ), such as Eton College.
- Secondary schools, so-called Sixth Form colleges whose students are about 16 to 18 years old and an Advanced Level can purchase at these schools
- The individual components of many universities such as Cambridge, Durham, Oxford and the University of London
- Other facilities outside of the traditional education system. This includes University Colleges, so separate, independent from other universities institutions of higher education that have partially achieved the status of a university, such as the Imperial College London and University College Dublin.
- Schools that are economically - economically oriented, such as the ADT College London.
Ratio of Universities and Colleges
For some universities, colleges constitute legally and economically independent units, so that such universities could also be referred to as a federation of colleges. The degree of binding between college and the associated University fluctuates.
In the universities of Cambridge, Durham and Oxford, the colleges are responsible about the social and economic interests of the students and take over the provision of canteens, dormitories, meeting rooms, libraries or sports many tasks that are performed in Germany, for example, from student unions. They also assume, for example, through tutorials, parts of the technical support. The university itself is, however, responsible for the tests and offers the lectures.
At the University of London, the autonomy of the colleges even goes so far that they can almost be regarded as an independent university. On the other hand, there are also some colleges to universities, although they assume the responsibilities described above, but there are much less independent, as shown for Oxford and Cambridge.
These are partly in a better economic position than the universities to which they belong - especially by the flow of many colleges - they have their own employees, but also property.
The College as a new type of university in Germany
The German higher education system is in a process of increasing differentiation. This process includes the development of new types of institutions a well as internal differentiation within larger universities. So far, in Germany there are only a few types of institutions such as colleges or professional schools. In other countries - such as the Netherlands - the College has long been established successfully. Who wants to start a university in Germany, according to the law, so far only the choice between university and polytechnic. Despite these strict laws to break more and more colleges in practice these formal specifications. In the course of the Bologna reforms increasingly formed at German universities study models, which are based on the structure of American Colleges. Reason for this new development are social changes that require greater differentiation and individualization. Growing numbers of students and a labor market that increasingly demands flexibility and interdisciplinarity are just two of the reasons for the need for new study profiles.
In November 2010, the German Science Council was in favor of opening up to new types of institutions: as also the Council's recommendation to federal and state governments. In the opinion of the Scientific Council universities and colleges alone are no longer enough to meet the growing diversity of the individual and society's expectations of academic institutions can. In addition to dual universities, open universities and professional schools, the Panel colleges named as alternate forms. Frank Ziegele, Managing Director Centre for Higher Education Development, sees the recommendation of the Science Council primarily as a signal for the benefits of diversity, which is to encourage the universities to greater differentiation and profiling. The range of different types of higher education looks Ziegele as a means of individualization, it will be important to more in the future.
The German College
A college can be both organized and autonomous body or make those sub-unit of a university, are located in each undergraduate programs. An example of an autonomous body, the European College of Liberal Arts in Berlin; unit as part of a university, college is for example organized at the University of Lüneburg. The College offers students who earn a bachelor for the first time an academic degree, to form a framework and a common roof their professional scientific, interdisciplinary and social skills. Thus, the teaching and learning opportunities as well as consulting and services in the study are specifically targeted to the study situation of Bachelor students. In addition to an intense professional and personal support to promote the study community, scientific dialogue among students and between students and faculty / inside as well as personality development is, among other things by many opportunities for student involvement in focus. In general, there is a wide range of subjects available. Frequently, a specialization with additional interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary study elements are offered that allow the view as to the respective discipline beyond. Often students between major and minor subjects ( major and minor subjects) or more combinable fields of study to choose from. The bachelor's degree at a college is usually completed in six semesters.
The German Community College
General proclaimed that in Germany no valid equivalent of the community colleges exist. After following system and structure as well as the demand for berufsorientiernder education, coupled with the higher general nature, the technical secondary schools are emerging as a valid counterpart. This on the one hand, since the content of the compulsory optional subject firstly fulfills the vocational standard, on the other hand satisfy the general education subjects the claim of higher education. Thus, for example, released on a FOS ( technical secondary school) for Social Welfare the choice between sociology, psychology and education, however, in the general subjects such as Mathematics far beyond the standard of junior high school (comparable to the High School Diploma ) taught out.
The Arab Omani higher education system is relatively young. There is a binary higher education system, which consists mainly of universities and colleges as well as some higher institutions (the " Higher Institute "). In Oman, the term " college " usually refers to an educational institution of tertiary education system, in which a so-called " undergraduate " degree can be achieved. The students acquire their first professional degrees here.
The first year usually closes with the " Higher National Certificate ( HNC ) ", which is a separate financial statements. With another year of study a "Higher National Diploma ( HND) " can be purchased. After completing a third year of study, the academic degree of a Bachelor is obtained.
Colleges are found both in government and in private. Research activities are - as most institutions exist only for a few years - not yet implemented; the task is usually limited to the pure training.
In addition, there are a number of educational institutions which, although referred to as college, but rather the secondary education sector are attributed and have so-called vocational education character. Some of the colleges are more in vocational schools and technical schools as a university or college. A vocational training system that is similar to the West German, focus on technical professions, and is now to be built with the help of the German Society for Technical Cooperation ( GTZ).
At the only public university in the country, the Sultan Qaboos University, the disciplines, which study the " undergraduate ", as " colleges " means. The bodies to which you based it can acquire a master's degree, there are called " Schools".