Continuous and progressive aspects

The course form is a verb form or paraphrase in some languages ​​that expresses a moment held, non- selective action.

Progressive forms in English

In German, there is in some dialects a progressive form, for example the so-called Rhenish progressive form with be in contact with on a substantivized and infinitive, for example, he is reading. This form is lezen in the closely related Dutch Hij is aan het, even highly linguistically, just as in this closely related Low German.

Various research papers assume that the waveform with the grammaticalized much stronger in the German language than previously thought. It is believed that the infinitive used by a substantivized developed into a verbal unit and more tends to lower case ( "he's read on "). Lt.. Duden is now " part already considered the default language. " The progressive form with the Lt. Duden there is the progressive form with standard language in and around the ( at / in going to be). In addition, the progressive form in the German vernacular has arrived in the form of Inflektivs. Also, frequently use words like " just " or used "in the moment " to indicate an instantaneous action, some of which are even linked with the progressive form ( just be reading ).

In the south Bavaria can do used as an auxiliary verb with an infinitive to express the progressive form ( he does read). The same form is also based in ostlimburgischen and Ripuarian languages ​​where they are usually more fundamental and longer-lasting relationships describes as the most - onset form, making it a certain proximity to the same construction in Northern Germany, in Jutland and the Danish, as well as the gains in Old English and German having.

Progressive forms in different languages

In English, the progressive form with the auxiliary verb will be in conjunction with a participle formed, for example: He is reading. ( He reads straight). A similar form can also be found in the Basque language.

In Italian, the progressive form with the auxiliary will stare in conjunction with the gerund used: L' uomo sta correndo ( The man runs straight). Gradual developments or constant repetition of an operation, however, be expressed with the gerund andare: Andava dicendo sciocchezze ( He kept saying stupid stuff ); Actions in their course with gerund venire Mi semper più vengo persuadendo che ... (I 'm more and more convinced that ... )

Corresponding structures with estar or andar and the gerund are also used in Spanish as well as in the Brazilian Portuguese: El hombre está corriendo (Spanish ) or O homem correndo está ( Portuguese). In European Portuguese the gerund is replaced by the construction of a infinitive: O homem está a correr.

In French, a progressive form exists; it is formed of " être en train de faire qc ". Literally translated, this means: " Being in the train to do something ", where the " être " is conjugated depending on the subject and the "fair" ( make ) can be replaced by another verb in the infinitive, eg: "The suis en train d' écrire. "

In the Celtic languages, such as the Breton and Irish, an auxiliary verb in the meaning appears to be with a preposition and the verbal noun to, for example, Irish tá sé ag léamh ( he is reading, literally: he is at reading).

In Lithuanian special (progressive ) participles are used, for example, jis BUVO bemiegąs ( he slept, see the finite form jis miega / miegojo he sleeps / slept or jis yra / BUVO miegojęs he has / had slept ), in the present tense is this construction, however mundartnah: aš esu beskaitąs ( I read, literally, I 'm a reading ).

In Quechua waveform expresses the infix chka - out: " Taytanmantam rimachkan " ( He is speaking of his father) against " Runasimitam riman " ( He speaks Quechua ). " Paypak taytamantami rimakun " or " Runashimitami riman ": In Kichwa this contrast is the infix - ku.