Convention of Kanagawa

On March 31, 1854, the Treaty of Kanagawa (Japanese神奈川 条约Kanagawa Jōyaku, or日 米 和 亲 条约Nichibei Washin Jōyaku ) of Commodore Matthew Perry was used by the U.S. Navy to the opening of Japanese ports, Shimoda and Hakodate to trade force with the United States. This ended 200 years of Japan's policy of isolation ( sakoku ). The Convention also guaranteed the safety of shipwrecked American whalers and established a permanent U.S. consul in Japan.

Although he refused to negotiate with Japanese officials, and demanded to speak with the Japanese Head of State, Perry did not notice that he was negotiating with the shogun and not with the Emperor. The Shogun however, was at that time already the de facto ruler of Japan, and for the emperor dealing with foreigners would have been unimaginable. After the Treaty of Kanagawa was concluded similar agreements of Russia and Great Britain were negotiated.

This contract has been superseded by the " unequal " US -Japanese Friendship and Trade Treaty ( Harris Treaty) in 1858, the U.S. unilaterally conceded concessions in Japan, such as extraterritoriality of its nationals in Japan and minimal import tariffs on American goods to Japan.