Copenhagen Accord

The Copenhagen Accord ( egl.: " Copenhagen Accord " ) is the central outcome document (Decision 2/CP.15 ) of the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen 2009 It was only taken by the conference participants acknowledged but not approved and is. therefore not legally binding. It can also be signed by all Member States of the UNFCCC.

In the absence of a binding continuation of the Kyoto Protocol is the post-Kyoto process to consider with this outcome of the conference in Copenhagen failed.


Climate change is recognized as one of the greatest challenges of our time; and urgent need to combat. The scientific evidence that a " dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system" can only be prevented if global warming is limited to less than 2 degrees Celsius ( objective of the Climate Convention) is recognized. Due to the dangerous effects of climate change is also emphasized that there must be comprehensive adjustment programs with international support for the most affected countries.

In order to limit climate change to less than 2 degrees Celsius, " deep cuts " in global emissions of greenhouse gases are needed; binding targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions does not exist in the Copenhagen Accord, however. The highlight of emissions is to be achieved "as soon as possible"; it is recognized that this may be the case later in developing countries, where the social and economic development is a priority. The industrialized countries (Annex I countries ) to register their respective reduction targets by 2020 in an Annex I until the end of January 2010; compliance with these commitments to be as well as the financial support of poor countries monitored in line with international guidelines of the Conference of the Parties. The non- industrialized countries are also to end of January 2010 to register their activities to reduce global warming in Annex II, which is updated every two years. You can monitor the adherence itself and the results must be notified; but as the action by developed countries are monitored internationally by the industrialized countries financed measures.

Adaptation to the impacts of climate change presents a challenge for all countries, especially particularly affected poor countries, small islands and Africa need this increased international support. The States agree that this adequate, reliable and sustainable financial assistance must be made. For the measures to combat climate change - which explicitly includes the protection of forests - and for adaptation to the impacts of climate change in poor countries are in the period 2010 to 2012 30 billion U.S. $ is available, this amount will increase by 2020 100 billion U.S. $ per year. The money will largely be spread over a re- founding " Green Climate Fund ".

Implementation of this agreement will be reviewed in 2015; then it should also be checked if the long-term goal of limiting global warming must be reduced to 1.5 degrees Celsius.

Signatory States

The following countries have signed the Copenhagen Accord before the publication of the conference proceedings and are therefore included in the Copenhagen Accord as a supporter: Albania, Algeria, Armenia, Ethiopia, Australia, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Chile, China, Costa Rica, Denmark, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Germany, Djibouti, Ivory Coast, Eritrea, Estonia, European Union, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Cambodia, Canada, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, Colombia, Congo, Croatia, Laos, Lesotho, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Morocco, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Macedonia, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Namibia, Nepal, New Zealand, Netherlands, Norway, Austria, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Rwanda, Romania, Russia, Zambia, Samoa, San Marino, Sweden, Switzerland, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, South Africa, South Korea, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Czech Republic, Tunisia, Hungary, United Arab Emirates, United States of America, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Uruguay, Belarus, Central African Republic, Cyprus.

Since the publication of the Accord following States have expressed a desire to be included in the list of signatory countries: Afghanistan, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Belize, Brunei, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Grande Comore, Gambia, Guinea -Bissau, Honduras, Jamaica, Kenya, Liberia, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nigeria, Saint Lucia, Tajikistan, Timor-Leste, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, Vietnam.

Overall, the 141 supportive states.


The Copenhagen Accord is a political closing statement, which was " taken note " of the climate change conference only, but has not been formally adopted. This was particularly the protest of some particularly hard-hit by climate change developing countries like Tuvalu, Bolivia and Sudan, who saw their interests taken into account as insufficient. Climate scientists such as Hans Joachim Schellnhuber of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK ) estimate that the previously present commitments would lead to a temperature increase of 3.5 degrees Celsius. Also, the German environmental organization Watch agrees with this assessment, criticized the absence of a guarantee that the financial commitments are not met by a relabelling of funds for poverty reduction as well as the lack of a deadline for the adoption of a legally binding contract. The Chairman of the IPCC, Rajendra Pachauri, looks at the recognition of the 2 -degree target and the international monitoring of the commitments as progress; but criticized the lack of concrete numbers to reduce emissions. A concrete agreement failed for him, especially the fact that U.S. President Barack Obama had to take domestic political considerations (his climate bill was discussed at this time in the Senate, however, never came to a vote ), and would be working in China next five- year plan. He hopes that next year, when both barriers were eliminated, could come to a legally binding agreement.