The Coptic calendar is an astronomical calendar, which is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church. The year has twelve months of 30 days each, plus the so-called Epagomenen, five ( six in leap years ) plug-in days at the end of the year. The Coptic calendar is the western Gregorian calendar currently afterwards ( AD until 2099 AD) by 283 years, 8 months and 10 or 11 days.
The Coptic calendar traces its origins back to the Egyptian calendar as the 5th millennium BC, although the Egyptian calendar had the character of a natural calendar with stellar Sothis orientation. This can therefore be considered the oldest still in use ( for reforms ) calendar system in the world. Also, the Julian calendar is basically just an adapted to the customs of the Roman Egyptian calendar.
The Coptic calendar used as Kalenderära the year of accession to the throne of the Roman emperor Diocletian. The epoch of the era of Diocletian is August 29 284 of the Christian era. Under Diocletian the last persecutions of Christians took place. After the voluntary abdication of the emperor, the count was continued in the kingdom, but no longer named after the introduction of Christianity as the state religion after him, but after his victims as Anno Martyrum (AM), or Era of Martyrs.
The Coptic year begins with the Feast Nairuz, the first day of the month Tout. The date corresponds to the Gregorian calendar September 11th or when the subsequent Gregorian year is a leap year (eg 2015), 12 September.
The September 12, 2015 therefore corresponds to the first Tout 1732 AM
Beginning of the year and leap day
Every fourth year of the Coptic calendar is a leap year, the first leap year was the year 3 AM ( 286/287 AD). Just as in the Julian calendar does not apply the valid in the Gregorian calendar additional rule, three times in 400 years skip a leap year, so the above scheme only from 1900 to 2099 is valid. In the Julian calendar, the Coptic New Year always falls on August 29 or August 30 in front of a leap year.
The Coptic Leap is therefore currently still 171 days before the Gregorian leap day instead (September 11, 2007 / February 29, 2008 ). Within this every four years recurring period, the Coptic month of beginnings regarding the Gregorian calendar shift by one day.
For Ethiopian calendar, see below. In the Coptic Church is currently being considered by a ausnahmsweises common year in 1815 AM Maintain ( 2098/99 AD), and later, according to the Gregorian rules, the Coptic New Year's Day in the future on the Gregorian 11th and 12th of September. (See web link. )
The Coptic month names and their beginning from 1900 to 2099 - the last column refers to the period between September before a ( Gregorian) Leap year until February of a leap year:
The Ethiopian calendar differs only in that he is 276 years ahead of him differs from the Coptic calendar. The first Tout 1724 A.M. (12 September 2007) therefore corresponds to the first Mäskäräm 2000 ዓ.ም.
Calculation of the weekday
Determination of the dominical letter. The years that are marked with a * are leap years.
Determination of the weekday with the help of the Sunday letter