Cumae ( Cuma Italian, Greek Κύμη Kyme ) was an ancient city in the Italian region of Campania north-west of Naples ( Ischia community ). The name probably derives from the Greek city of Cumae in Euboea from, but possibly also from the Greek word κῦμα kyma "wave" (in reference to the undulating silhouette of the peninsula on which the town is located ).
Cumae was founded around 750 BC by Greek colonists from Chalcis and Eretria, the time since 770 BC on the mainland offshore island of Ischia, the city had settled Pithekoussai (Greek Πιθηκούσσαι Pithekoussai "Monkey Island " ), and was the first Greek colony on the Italian mainland. Later it founded its own colonies: Dicaearchia ( Puteoli, Pozzuoli) and Neapolis (Naples).
Cumae was famous as the place where the Sibyl of Cumae true said her suspected cave is now a tourist attraction. It is located in a room, reached by a 131 meter long corridor, which was defeated in the south slope of the castle hill with many branches. The oldest part of the complex dates from the 6th or 5th century BC
Moreover, it is the place where the influential early Christian work to have been the Shepherd of Hermas inspired by visions.
Its heyday was Cumae 700-500 BC, when it in the years 524 and 504 BC the Etruscans deflected under the tyrant Aristodemus and BC with the combined fleets of Cumae and Syracuse in the year 474 under suggested Hieron I in the Battle of Cumae again.
To 420 BC Cumae was conquered by the Samnites and subsequently adopted the Oscan customs. Since the end of the First Samnitenkriegs 341 BC it was ruled by the Roman Republic, since 334 BC, Cumae had limited rights as a Roman municipium. After Cumae had lost its function as a port of Puteoli in imperial times, it was quiet around the city, which was only as the seat of the Sibyl of importance now.
Excavations brought to the Acropolis a temple of Zeus from the late 6th century ( was rededicated of n in the 5th century AD in a basilica ) BC -days as well as below the castle an Apollo temple from the 5th century BC. , which was renewed in the time of Augustus and also rededicated in the 5th century AD a basilica. Thanks to Augustus are also the building of baths and an amphitheater, and the expansion of the port of Misenum east of the city.