A gravity dam is a type for the shut-off building a dam. It is made of concrete or masonry, as opposed to a dam made up of the earth or be poured stones. Gravity dams are by their own weight, which also resists the flaoting sole water pressure, whereas arch dams are on the valley sides by the support. The cross section of a gravity dam is roughly triangular in shape with an almost vertical water side. The ratio of bed width to height is usually about 2:3. Larger gravity dams have a generally or more patrols, in which are drains and measuring instruments for monitoring.
Gravity dams are in wide, less deep valleys with gently sloping valley sides, while narrow valleys are more suitable for arch dams. You need good, steady building of rock. During inclement building a dam is preferred. The choice of lock type also depends on the availability of aggregates for the concrete or of the bulk material and gasket material for a dam.
From 1890 many gravity dams were built of rubble masonry and after Intze principle in Germany. They had almost all of an arc- shaped plan. The oldest gravity dam made of rubble masonry is the Eschbachtalsperre of 1891. After 1945 they were built mostly of concrete and with a straight outline. The recent gravity dam in Germany was built in Thuringia 2005 ( Leibis - light ). The oldest concrete gravity dam in Europe dammed the water of Lake Perolles in Fribourg ( Switzerland ) and was completed in 1872.
- Bleilochtalsperre and Hohenwarte Dam ( Thuringia)
- Grande Dixence ( Switzerland, the second highest gravity dam in the world, as of 2010)
- Eckertalsperre (Lower Saxony / Saxony- Anhalt)
- Möhnetalsperre (Sauerland)
- Edertalsperre (Hessen)
- Dam God Leuba (Saxony )
- Dam Eibenstock ( Saxony)
- Rappbode reservoir (Saxony- Anhalt)
- Dam Janov (Czech Republic)
- Leibis -Lichte ( Thuringia)
- Dam Mooserboden (Salzburg)
- Three Gorges Dam (China)
- Grand Coulee Dam (USA)
- Dam in the Beat ( Switzerland )
- Oberaarsee ( Switzerland )
- Dam Räterichsboden ( Switzerland )