De (Chinese)

De (德Chinese, Pinyin Dé Dé Tongyong Pinyin, W.-G. Tê / Teh, Zhuyin ㄉ ㄜ ) is a key concept in Chinese philosophy and refers to the effective force of the Dao.


The Chinese definition of the same is: What do the nature to arise, ie De. It is the active force of the Dao, which is inherent in each thing as essentially determining principle and makes it what it is and so it manifests itself in the phenomenal world.

Richard Wilhelm has translated the word in reference to the Bible verse ( John 1:4 EU) LIFE ( in all uppercase ). In this context, life but not the usual language- biological, but a specifically religious significance:

Wilhelm supposed to recognize an analogy: λόγος (Word, SINN ) correspond Dao, LIFE correspond De. This profound translation is problematic as they slipped over later the Christian perspective a different culture. It would be possible but also the translation of true nature, true nature, spirit, strength or knitting. Sometimes the word is translated in De moral treatises with virtue. Thus Germany, which is considered to be virtuous and industrious, Deguo (德国/德国, land of virtue / virtuous rich country ') called.

De is deep and mysterious. It enables people to return to simplicity and to become a model for its environment.

The De in the Daodejing

Philosophical importance was the term De particularly through the work of Tao Te Ching by Lao Tzu, said to have lived in the 6th century BC. De is there after the Dao in the title of the work. From the first, the Dao De ( the Great, depth called here ) is shown. The emergence of existence goes through the stages of the idea of the ( spiritual ) being, the seed of reality. The expression and the formation of the De is only the consequence of the Dao.

It is the return to simplicity allows this is that the De the individual permeates and captures essentially:

The Ungewordene ( Wuji ) is the front of the uranium Fang ( Taiji ) lying state of the mesh One of opposites. The De thus makes it possible in the field of transcendence, the return to the origin. In this life it leads to an ethical and compassionate dealing with others:

The Dao is realized in the non-intentional action by itself

The De in Zhuangzi

To 365 BC to 290 BC lived Zhuangzi, who in his work The True Book of Nanhua De and his relationship with the Dao and the one described: