The Wade- Giles system ( [ ˌ weɪd dʒaɪlz ]; Chinese韦氏 拼音/韦氏 拼音, Pinyin Wei - Shì Pīnyīn, W.-G. - wei2 Shi4 P'in1 - yin1 ) for phonetic transliteration of the Chinese characters and language in Latin goes back to Thomas Wade (1818-1895) and Herbert A. Giles ( 1845-1935 ). Thomas Wade was the first professor of Chinese at Cambridge and Herbert A. Giles his direct successor. Professor Wade had developed a Latinisierungssystem that was used and completed by Professor Giles in his lexicon for Chinese characters in the pronunciation of Peking in 1912.
The system was published in Robert H. Matthews (1877-1970) Chinese-English Dictionary, 1931 completed in Shanghai on. Various experts have from this system developed their own systems, all of which operate under the name " Wade- Giles ". Thus, the system of the Harvard - Yenching Institute of Matthews system and of the system that is officially used in Taiwan is different. The system, which is used as Wade- Giles system in Morohashi Tetsujis Sino- Japanese lexicon using, in turn, is a shade different.
Differences to Pinyin
The following tables list the differences to the Pinyin romanization. It lists only those to and end of a word as well as single syllables that are transcribed differently. Note that in Pinyin to j, q, x, y, the above items of the UE.
End of a word
Special cases for individual syllables
Marking the syllable boundary
To mark the division of syllables used Wade-Giles a hyphen (examples: at Ch'ang, T'ai- wan); Pinyin, however, used as hyphenation character by an apostrophe and this only before a, e, o, where it is necessary to avoid ambiguities ( Chang'an, but: Taiwan ).
Identification of the tones
Pinyin tone marker used on the vocal for the four tones of standard Chinese ( mā, má, mǎ, mà ). The Wade- Giles system, however, uses digits: ma1, ma2, ma3, ma4.
A practical problem with the system according to Wade- Giles is the apostrophe '. This character is ignored outside of academic publications often, which can lead to misunderstandings in the debate. Since the apostrophe to distinguish one aspirated and unaspirated consonants one (eg Pinyin g and k) occurs very frequently in addition, this problem is very large. The metro station Guting (Chinese古亭站, Pinyin Gǔtíng Zhan, W.-G. Ku3t'ing2 Chan4 ) MRT in Taipei was posted prior to the conversion to Pinyin as Kuting. As the reader but can not be sure in which cases the apostrophlose case is correct and in which cases are incorrect, you can not close attention to the debate. It offer him the following four ways ( in Pinyin): Guting, Kuting, Guding and Kuding.
Another ambiguity arises when the points above the sea level omitted are: distinctions like chun chun ↔ or ↔ ch'u ch'ü then fall away. This problem exists even in Pinyin, but there are only two cases: nu nu ↔ ↔ and lu lu.