Domestic energy consumption
Energy consumption features colloquially the need for energy for different practical applications. Energy is needed to do work. Depending on the application, mechanical work ( moving, accelerating, braking ), lighting, and heating and cooling processes are distinguished and marked with time-related measurement and characteristics.
The term energy consumption has colloquial linguistic and economic development. Physically, energy in a closed system is not consumed but are only transformed. In the physical sense, one speaks of exergy or entropy.
With energy consumption, consumption of final energy is colloquial and economic language meant that used by consumers in the form of processed petroleum, natural gas and coal products, such as fuels ( petrol, diesel), fuel oil, coke, coal, as well as electrical power or district heating will. This energy is converted into useful mechanical work ( moving, accelerating, braking ), for lighting and for heating and cooling operations.
Final energy is obtained from the naturally occurring raw materials of the main groups Fossil fuels, renewable energy and nuclear energy and umgewandelt.Die energy production and use is recognized in energy balances, which begins as a primary energy with the extraction of raw materials and runs through conversion processes to final energy, which as complying Secondary energy is called.
The last step in converting energy ( also called as tertiary energy ) among consumers is highly dependent of equipment, installation and drives used. This application is in step parent energy balances, as the energy balance for the Federal Republic of Germany, not to be recorded, which is therefore limited to the two areas of primary and final energy. Further balances including the useful energy to be made in production-related energy balances and efficiency analyzes.
The unit of energy is named after the International System of Units 1 joule, watt second, or even Newton meters: 1 J = 1 N · m = 1 kg · m2 · s -2. By unit 's resolutions, also called Einheitenpräfixe, multiples and submultiples are formed to avoid numbers with many digits ( example: 1 megajoule (MJ ) = 1,000,000 joules, see also magnitude (energy) ).
Colloquially, more units are used, such as kilowatt-hour ( kWh) of electricity, liters of fuel or weight units for solid fuels. The energy consumption can also be related to a particular outcome (eg: fuel consumption per 100 kilometers driven or power consumption of the device per year).
Characteristic values for energy consumption
The demand for final energy consumption will be marked with identification data, eg for vehicles with the fuel economy, for devices with the energy labeling of buildings and the energy certification. The distribution of energy consumption in households has been determined from consulting activities, eg the Energy Agency of North Rhine -Westphalia, has analyzed the consumption data from approximately 380,000 consultations.
Worldwide energy consumption
World consumption of primary energy in 2010 was 505,000 petajoules (PJ). World electricity demand accounts for around 17% of it.
Energy consumption in Germany
Primary and final energy consumption
In Germany, the primary energy consumption was in 2012 at approx. 13,757 petajoules (PJ) (equivalent to 3,821 billion kWh ) and the final energy consumption at approx. 9,000 petajoules (PJ), (equivalent to 2,500 billion kWh). The energy balance for the Federal Republic of Germany has conversion loss of 35% ( financial year 2012) between the primary and final energy consumption.
- Primary and final energy consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany in 2011
In the conversion of primary energy into useful energy end and ultimately in the conversion to useful energy losses incurred by the efficiency of the necessary treatment and conversion processes as well as transport. Energy can indeed be converted from one form to another, but this is the second law of thermodynamics fundamental limitations: thermal energy is only partially convertible into other forms of energy and transferable between systems. Therefore, in particular, losses occur in the conversion of primary energy in electricity generation. The use of fossil fuels, it will be the exclusive electricity at 60 to 70%; by use of the generated heat for district heating, the losses to approx. 50% will be reduced.
Use of final energy
The final energy is converted to 38% in mechanical energy ( transport tasks, machine drive, etc.) and converted to 26% in space heating and 23% in other process heat. These three application areas account for 87 % of final energy consumption of the Federal Republic of Germany. For hot water 5%, 4% for lighting and for information and communication technology ( ICT) are used 3% ( fiscal 2011 ).
The colloquial little common energy unit gigajoule when specifying the per capita consumption can be illustrated by conversion into kWh or oil quantities: 1 gigajoule (GJ ) = 278 kWh or amount of energy during combustion of 23.9 kg of oil.
Origin of primary energy
The primary energy for the Federal Republic of Germany dates back to around two thirds of imports. In the year 2011 9.280 petajoules of the total demand of 13,521 petajoules were imported, primarily petroleum and natural gas and coal. These energy sources there is a high dependence on imports 79-97 %. The domestic sources of brown coal and renewable energies were imported independently.
In 2011, in the Federal Republic of Germany imported:
- 90 million tons of crude oil,
- 100 billion cubic meters Erdgasund
- 41 million tonnes of coal ( currently available balances in early 2013 ).
The crude oil came to 39% from the Russian Federation, 17% from Africa ( mainly Nigeria, Algeria and Libya) and 14% from the UK. Of the remaining 30 % were larger share of supply from Kazakhstan ( 8%), from the Middle East ( 5%) and from South America 3%.
The imported natural gas came to 37% from the Russian Federation, 31% from Norway and 26% in the Netherlands. The remaining 7 % comes from "other countries ".
The coal imports came in 2011 to 25% in Colombia, 24% from the Russian Federation, and 19% from the U.S.. Of the remaining 32% larger share of supply came from Australia ( almost 10 %) and 9% from EU countries (especially Poland).
Per capita consumption of primary and final energy
The consumption of primary energy in Germany in 2011 by a total of 13,500 petajoules (PJ ) corresponds to a per capita consumption of approx. 40,000 kWh per capita (82 million inhabitants, see Germany ). These 2011 1.134 KG Gas, 1365 kg coal ( hard coal and brown coal) and 1,451 m3 of natural gas were used per capita. In addition, from renewable energy sources 5,038 kWh and 3,994 kWh of nuclear energy per capita.
This per capita consumption of primary energy corresponds to a continuous output of 5.4 kW, which was required per capita ( consumption to 8,760 hours a year are translated ). For comparison, a human being is during exercise to a continuous power of 0.06 kW able chord with ratings 0.1 kW. The consumption of primary energy in Germany is almost 100 times higher than the human continuous power.
The per capita final energy consumption in Germany in 2011 of a total of 8,700 petajoules (PJ ) corresponds to a per capita consumption of approx. 29,600 kWh per capita. Of this total, 8,400 kWh on fuels, 7,100 kWh of natural gas, 6,400 kWh on electricity total, of which 1,670 kWh for private consumption, 2,500 kWh to 5,200 kWh and fuel oil to other energy sources, mainly firewood.
Development of energy prices in Germany
With the world's increasing energy consumption a significant increase in energy prices can be observed. This price trend is detected for the different types of energy based on official data and illustrated with price indices. The Federal Statistical Office of the Federal Republic of Germany merged own price statistics and related information from the EU Statistical Office (Eurostat) and relative to the base year 2005 (soon 2010).
Import, producer and export price indices are based on the Product Classification for Production Statistics (GP), 2009 edition. For consumer price indices the classification of private consumption is used by Purpose ( COICOP Classification of Individual Consumption by = Purpose). Taxes and levies are taken into account in the way they are included in the price: import prices are therefore set without VAT, as they will be set off in the course of deductions. Consumer prices include VAT and according to the duties and levies.
The import prices for primary energy have almost doubled in the period from 2005 to 2012. Consumer prices for the most important final energy heating and fuels and electricity are stronger than the general consumer price index has risen, most heating oil by approx. 65 % of the gasoline market by 34 or 40%, in case of power by 44 % and natural gas by 29%.
- Development of prices for primary and final energy in the Federal Republic of Germany 2000-2012
Consumer prices of final energy in Germany, Base year 2005 = 100 %
Energy consumption in Austria
The energy consumption in Austria amounted to 1,429 PJ in 2008, with an annual growth rate of 1.7% on average in the period 1990 to 2008. Gross inland consumption increased from 1970 to 2004 by 75% to 1,395 PJ. At the same time the share of renewable energy is slowly increasing.
Energy consumption in Switzerland
The energy consumption in Switzerland amounted to 1,154 PJ in 2009.