Dvandva ( द्वन्द्व dvandva " pair " ) is a term derived from the Sanskrit grammar, which denotes a particular type of compounds. In linguistic terminology, a copulative or coordinative Dvandva is a compound. The Dvandva denotes a list of individual links. In German, the equivalent to a sequence with "and". In general, the gender of the Dvandva - compound word corresponding to the last member, the number of the sum of the elements (ie, dual in two, three or more plural members ). Examples:
- आचार्यशिष्यौ ācārya - śiṣyau (Dual ): lit. " teacher-student " = " teacher and student "
- हरिहरौ hari Harau (Dual ): literally " Hari- Hara " = " Hari and Hara " ( Vishnu and Shiva)
- देवमनुष्याः deva - manuṣyāḥ ( plural): literally " God-man " = " gods and men " ( plural)
- नराश्वरथदन्तिनः nar - ASVA - ratha - dantinaḥ ( plural): literally " man -horse chariot - elephant " = " men, horses, chariots and elephants " ( plural)
Verwandtschaftsnomina in-r subject to a special rule: If two Verwandtschaftsnomina connected, the first term is not as common in the ancestral form but in the nominative:
- मातापितरौ Mata - pitarau: literally " mother - fathers " = "Mother and Father" ( Dual )
More rarely expresses a Dvandva from a collective unit. In this case, it appears as a neuter singular. example:
- सुखदुःखम् sukha - duhkham: lit. "lucky accident " = "Happiness "
In German, dvandvas have no direct equivalent in linguistic lexicons ( Bussmann, Metzler ), however, they are often referred to as Kopulativkomposita (examples: sweet and sour, Baden- Württemberg, black, red ). In the Indian tradition the Dvandva is in particular reputation; Krishna says in the Bhagavad Gita verse 10.33 "Among the characters I am the Alpha, among the composites Dvandva ".