Einkorn (Triticum monococcum )
Einkorn (Triticum monococcum ) is one of the oldest domesticated cereals. The name comes from the single grain on the rachis ago. Descended from the wild einkorn wheat ( Triticum boeoticum Boiss. ), Who in contrast to a brittle Ährchengabel einkorn ( rachis ). Einkorn was considered a forerunner of emmer, spelled and bread wheat, has been determined by genetic studies that Emmer of Emmer Wilder derived from the Southeast.
The area of origin of domesticated einkorn is controversial. Heun and others argue on the basis of genetic studies of einkorn from Turkey, the Caucasus and Lebanon for an origin from southeastern Turkey ( Karacadağ ), while M. Jones and others see the origin in the southern Levant, where emmer, einkorn and barley since the pre-pottery Neolithic A 8000-7700 BC have been domesticated. The evidence, however, be doubted. Sure domesticated einkorn wheat dating back to the pre-pottery Neolithic B (6700-6000 BC), for example, from Jericho and Tell Aswad II on the upper Euphrates was domesticated einkorn in the preceramic layers of Mureybit, Nevalı Çori (7200 BC) Jerf el Ahmar, Abu Hureyra (7800-7500 BC) and Dja'de found. From Cafer Höyük settlements like, Nevalı Çori and Cayönü however, there is also wild einkorn, indicating the importance of this plant as a plant collector already in the Mesolithic or Epipalaeolithic.
Einkorn and emmer are among the most important crops of the Linear Pottery. Only in the late Linear Pottery is also gaining Binkelweizen ( T. compactum ) influence. Remains of einkorn were found among others in the Stone Age glacier mummy "Ötzi" in the Alps.
Einkorn is relatively undemanding in terms of the quality of the soil. In addition, it is resistant to many pests such as root rot, blotch or the ergot fungus and is better able to prevail against the competition of arable weeds as a modern hybrid wheat varieties. However, the yield is considerably lower than in the modern wheat varieties on sandy soils yields of only 12 to 21 t / ha can be achieved.
If the cultivation of einkorn in the 20th century economically almost meaningless, as einkorn wheat is grown but still, for example, in Switzerland, in Germany, in Austria and in the Waldviertel in Turkey today. Increasingly, processed products such as pasta, bread and beer from einkorn are offered.
Ingredients and use
Although more profit poorer than seed wheat, einkorn contains more minerals and amino acids than this. A high yellow pigment content of beta -carotene are the einkorn flour a yellowish color. From einkorn malt beer can be brewed.