Grammarian (Greco-Roman world)
Grammarians are in current usage scientists in the field of grammar. In ancient Greece, since the age of Alexandria was called the grammarian first teacher of grammar, then those scholars who themselves, so all employed the studies with the study of Grammata, the literary works of antiquity, after their formal and real content, we the term philology summarized. The first recorded Greek grammar was written by Dionysius Thrax, the first syntax of Apollonius Dyskolus. Long before these works (4th century BC ) has already written a Sanskrit grammar of Panini in India.
In Rome grammatical studies have been operated since 169 BC as a result of excitation of Crates of Mallos, and it busy until the end of the Republic of respected men such as Aelius Stilo and Varro so.
As far as the other members grammarian lessons, they were, the Greek and the Roman, to the imperial time private teacher. In Rome they were given only since Emperor Vespasian ( 69-79 ) a salary from the state, like the rhetoricians.
Since the time of the Antonines taught in all major cities of the Roman Empire public employees grammarian next to philosophers and rhetoricians, which were partly, partly paid by the municipalities by the emperor and favored throughout the state by granting immunities. Theodosius II and Valentinian III. founded in Constantinople Opel 425 a kind of academy (see University of Constantine Opel ), taught at the ten Latin and Greek grammarian ten next three Latin and five Greek rhetoricians.