Group 2 (racing)
The Group 2 or inaccurate special touring cars was a between the 1960 and 1981 existing production-based rating group of touring car whose regulations by the then FISA, forerunner of the FIA, has been defined in Appendix J of the International Sporting Code. Even " Improved series touring cars ", shorter and " Improved Touring Car " was common, as the term " special touring cars " for the Group 5 came into use.
Required was a figure of 1,000 cars, which had to be built within twelve months. Also required were four seats, whose dimensions were defined in the regulations. With its displacement to 700 cc ranged two seats. As part of the historic motor sport, the rules of the group are also currently still applied. The classic cars Regulations Group 2, in details, in particular the homologation, differ from the original regulations.
Most were and the groups 1 and 2 are considered together. Actually, the group 2 served but as a recording group for group 1 cars whose changes over the Permitted went out, but still were adhering to the framework of group 2. This was immaterial whether a Group 2 homologation existed. It was different motorsport until 1981 from today, where a Group N car may not be easily reclassified in the car pass for group A car, if no such homologation exists.
The text of the FISA formulations is shown in italics. Additions have been made where it is necessary to understand. With seemingly trivial definitions and provisions of the text was also reduced. The original text has been carefully redrafted to safeguard the existence of any other law to the text.
- 4.1 Changes in the mechanical origin parts
- 4.2 Motor 4.2.1 Cylinder heads and valves
- 4.2.2 fuel supply and its components
- 4.2.3 Enlargement of the hole
- 4.2.4 exhaust manifold, exhaust pipes and muffler
- 4.2.5 seals
- 4.2.6 Lubrication System
- 4.2.7 camshafts and valve drive
- 4.2.8 pistons, piston pins and piston rings
- 4.3.1 transmission
- 4.3.2 Differential
- 4.5.1 springs and shock absorbers
- 5.1 Minimum Quantity 100
- 5.2 Without minimum quantity
- 5.3 Illegal variants
- 5.4 cubic classes
Article 258 - Definitions
Group 2 vehicles are " [ ... ] made in limited production car, which can be improved with the aim to make them suitable for use in competition. " Permitted changes and additions performs the Article 260. Group 2 also takes on those cars of the Group 1, have the additions or changes on the admissible limits.
Article 259 - Minimum production and number of places
Group 2 cars had to be built in at least 1000 copies and have at least four seats, unless their engine capacity was equal to or less than 700 cm ². In this case, the manufacturer could provide in the two-seat embodiment.
The seating arrangements of the group corresponds to 1
Article 260 - Permissible changes and additions
The table below is applicable to the prescribed minimum weights.
- Cylinder capacity not exceeding 500 cm ³ 495 kg
- Cylinder capacity not exceeding 600 cm ³ 535 kg
- Cylinder capacity not exceeding 700 cm ³ 570 kg
- Cylinder capacity not exceeding 850 cm ³ 615 kg
- Cylinder capacity not exceeding 1000 cm ³ 655 kg
- Engine capacity to 1150 cc 690 kg
- Cylinder capacity not exceeding 1300 cm ³ 720 kg
- Cylinder capacity not exceeding 1600 cm ³ 775 kg
- Cylinder capacity not exceeding 2000 cm ³ 845 kg
- Engine capacity to 2500 cc 920 kg
- Cylinder capacity not exceeding 3000 cm ³ 990 kg
- Engine capacity to 3500 cc 1050 kg
- Engine capacity to 4000 cc 1115 kg
- Engine capacity to 4500 cc 1175 kg
- Engine capacity to 5000 cc 1225 kg
- Engine capacity to 5500 cc 1280 kg
- Engine capacity to 6000 cc 1330 kg
- Engine capacity to 6500 cc 1365 kg
- Engine capacity to 7000 cc 1405 kg
- Engine capacity to 7500 cc 1425 kg
- Engine capacity to 8000 cc 1445 kg
- Displacement 8000 cc 1530 kg
Other permitted changes
All permitted for the carriage of group 1 changes were also allows for carriage of group 2. Moreover, were allowed:
Changes in the mechanical origin parts
All original parts, which had undergone all planned machining operations could be revised, however, could not be replaced. Certain parts that are listed below were, except, that is completely optional.
But it had to be possible to identify the origin of the serial parts. It was allowed no material may be added.
Cylinder heads and valves
Valves, valve guides and valve seats were interchangeable. In addition, the or the cylinder heads were machined by removal of material. However, the number of valves per cylinder must not be changed. It was allowed to put shims under the valve springs. As for the springs, see below.
Fuel supply and its components
The fuel supply, ie carburettor or fuel injection was optional. A direct injection was permissible only for those engines for which it was provided in series production. The same was true for any kind of a charge.
" Originally provided in series production " The formulation was meant: as standard installation in vehicles that are delivered to the buyer under mentioned on the homologation form or in the manufacturer's catalog.
Enlargement of the bore
Up to the limit of the original displacement class, in which the model was that boring or replacement of the cylinder liners was allowed.
Exhaust manifold, exhaust pipes and muffler
The exhaust system from the header to the muffler was optional, with the limitation that the attenuation of the Aufpuffgeräusches had to lie on public roads within the limits at events in that country, where the event took place, were considered.
Seals could be omitted or replaced by others.
The oil pan could be replaced or altered, even if it means the capacity change.
The oil pump was optional but not the number of oil pumps. Also the oil cooler and oil filter were exempted even what number, capacity and type concerned.
Camshafts and valve drive
The camshaft and the valve drive were optional. The number, position and drive system of the camshaft (s ) had to be maintained. The valve springs were subject to no restrictions, not even the number and type (see also springs).
Piston, piston pin and piston rings
Pistons, piston rings and piston pins were exempt.
The number of gears could not be changed; the single translations were exempt. " The exemption of the gradation refers to both the main and secondary shaft and the gears and bearings. " Even the design and position of the shift lever were exempt.
The translation of the driving axle was optional. There was no restriction of the suspension. " A self-locking differential - no locking differential - can be installed, provided that it fits within the existing drive housing without changes that go beyond the paragraph a), must be made. " The drive shaft ( propeller shaft ) between the transmission and differential was optional.
To change the original parts of the suspension was allowed, and the installation of a stabilizer. The original stabilizer could be replaced by another. This was also permissible that the stabilizer took over other functions in the suspension (wheel and axle location ). The number of stabilizers was optional.
Articulations with a different material or in a different execution than the original could be installed.
With a solid axle it was allowed to add anchor points and guides.
Springs and shock absorbers
" With regard to the springs, there is complete freedom on the condition that the design of the springs is maintained. Meanwhile, the Assembly may Zichen no change of mechanical parts on the referred to in Article 260a 's borders to be as no change in the body or chassis. Additional springs are allowed. "
The " execution" was meant that a coil spring had to stay a coil spring and could not be replaced by a leaf or torsion spring.
Extensive freedom existed also in terms of the shock absorbers, provided that no mechanical part has been changed about the speed in Article 260a borders. There were points are added on the chassis and the suspension elements.
Provided that the original steering box was used, the steering ratio was optional.
Wheels and Rims
Wheels and rims were optional, provided that their assembly was carried out in accordance with Article 255 d) and the width of the tire wheels then the values tabulated did not exceed depending on engine capacity:
- To 1300 cm ³ inch
- Up to 1600 cm ³ 10.5 inches
- To 2000 cm ³ 11.5 inches
- To 3000 cm ³ 13 inches
- To 5000 cm ³ 14 inches
- To 6000 cm ³ 15 inches
- Over 6000 cc 16 inch
All four wheels of a car had the same diameter (Article 252 l).
Due to problems with the fatigue strength of wheel discs was recommended to ask the rims manufacturers security guarantees.
Each spring that is installed in a vehicle may be changed or replaced with another.
- The fuel tank and the water cooler were largely exempted.
- The incorporation of a dual-circuit brake system was allowed. The braking surfaces of discs and drums had to be maintained. As in group 1, the toppings were exempted.
The conversion from drum brakes to disc brakes or vice versa was not allowed
- Insulating mats or other insulating materials could be removed.
A homologation an optional equipment was only possible if this was available and commercially readily with the manufacturer or its subsidiaries for anyone who wanted to purchase them. She had to be clearly marked in the spare parts list for each model. This was true for the basic model, which was sold in the first model year, and was homologated in this form.
Variants and Nachhomologationen
Under the following points changes and variants are listed, which were included by the manufacturer in the series or parts thereof. The points further above are for single cars.
Minimum Quantity 100
For the following changes to a minimum total annual production of 100 units was necessary:
- Reinforced suspension parts, when they are fully interchangeable with the original part and if the pivot points are left in their original place.
- Reinforced chassis items.
- All chassis parts that were attached with rivets or bolts to the chassis. They must be removed or replaced by a reinforced part, without being cut or welded.
- Transmission: those enclosed with a different number of gears
- Reduction gear ( overdrive )
- Different steering housing
- Different joints and drive shafts
- Connecting rods. This had made of the same material as the original.
- Clutches and Flywheels
- Housing for clutch, gearbox and differential
- Cylinder head made of other materials and / or in another form. The number of camshafts and their arrangement and the number of valves per cylinder had to remain unchanged.
- Crankshaft: It is the passage as connecting rods.
- Other bearing cap.
- Dry sump lubrication
- Facilitated body parts, such as side windows made of Plexiglas, aluminum doors, fiberglass cowl, etc. The specified on the test sheet weight of the vehicle had to be respected.
Without minimum quantity
The following changes could be homologated without a minimum level of production:
- Different dashboards
- Under protection devices that the aerodynamic resistance is not significantly improved
- Fender flares to 5 cm each side of the car
- Different brakes with custom hubs
Changes or optional equipment affecting directly or indirectly the engine performance and driveability, could only be homologated if at least 1000 vehicles were equipped with this equipment manufactured in 12 months. This came in handy a Neuhomologation same.
When used for the Group 4, the required minimum production had totaled 500 vehicles.
Within the group 2, the vehicles were divided according to engine capacity classes. Commonly were the classes
- Below 600 cm ³
- About 600 to 700 cc
- About 700 and 850 cm ³
- About 850 to 1000 cc
- About 1000 to 1150 cc
- About 1150 to 1300 cc
- About 1300 to 1600 cc
- About 1600 to 2000 cc
- 2000 cm ³
The displacement classes reflect the distribution of road vehicles is reflected in the time. In fact, the classes were cc and 2000 cc, divided among 600 in the regulations; However, the above limitation corresponded to the conditions on the track.
Well-known group -2- cars
In this list, the cars are listed which could be used only in the tuning stage Group 2 of chances in motorsport. In addition, the cars were homologated for the number of pieces only in group 2.
- BMW 3.0 CS / CSL
- Fiat Abarth 695 SS
- Fiat Abarth 850 TC ( TC stands for Touring Corse)
- Fiat Abarth 1000 TC
- Fiat Abarth 1000 TCR ( even higher version )
- Ford Escort
- Ford Capri This model was. Extensive Nachhomologationen to a nearly invincible competitor
- NSU TT ( 1300 cc )
- NSU TTS ( to 1000 cc )
- Steyr -Puch 650 TR II
Operational area of the Group 2 cars were almost all variants of motorsport, from the mountain race slalom circuit racing and of course rallies. In the early years of the German Racing Championship this was held with the Group 2 cars.