Hindustani language

Spoken in

Hindustani (Hindi, f, हिंदुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, hindustānī, Persian, means " Indian ", " from the Indus country in the future " ) is the name of a North Indian language, from which the standard languages ​​Hindi, Urdu and Fijian Hindustani developed.

Hindustani is an Indo-Aryan language and was understood in many parts of the north and the center of the Indian subcontinent. Today is meant by the Hindustani common in informal everyday situations oral compensation language of Northern India ( and Pakistan ) which, unlike Hindi and Urdu does not follow any fixed, nationally binding rules. Hindustani is therefore no standard language.

The term Hindustani

The term Hindustani has undergone several changes of meaning over the centuries. Hindustani was for the Persian-speaking conquerors of India initially an umbrella term for the indigenous languages ​​of North India in contrast to the Persian. As the regional language Khari Boli, which was the dominant idiom in and around Delhi, the lingua franca climb for large parts of the subcontinent, it was referred to, inter alia, as Hindustani. Other names for the language was Hindi, Hindavi, Hindui, Bhakha and Rekhta. The British, who forcibly took control of large parts of South Asia from the mid-18th century, understood Hindustani the fed mainly by Persian and Arabic loan words, and written in Nastaliq style of Arabic script form of Khari boli, which we today under know the name of Urdu. Only since the beginning of the 20th century and by the influence of Mahatma Gandhi is understood Hindustani "healthy middle" of the Hindi -Urdu language continuum.

Hindustani as a compromise - variety

The contrast between Hindi and Urdu was not always as pronounced as it is today. The as Hindustani ( Persian term, " language of India " ) designated transitional form, on whose care Mahatma Gandhi was located much, the spoken language was based around Delhi. Their knowledge was disseminated in previous centuries by the Mughal rule over their ancestral range. Today it is still the most even written in the Latin alphabet military language of India. In addition, an uninflected, pidginartige variety in the major cities of North India under the name of "bazaar Hindustani " is used as lingua franca.

Differences between Hindi and Urdu

Hindi and Urdu are varieties of the same single language ( sociolects ). The main difference between the two languages, the use of different alphabets. Hindi is written in Devanagari. Urdu, which is written in Perso - Arabic, began as a literary expression in poetry enforce at a time when the Persian language and lingua franca of education was the masses. Examples of this are songs ( ghazal ). Ethno - political voice of the twin Hindi -Urdu, however, as two different development languages ​​considered. The Hindustani served as Ausgleichsvarietät between these two and other closely related languages ​​of the Northwest Indian space.

While the vocabulary of the written language is different (specialized words, such as religious terms, separate development of the dissemination countries), the grammar is the same and the pronunciation is very similar, so that speakers can communicate effortlessly in everyday life.

  • Indo-Aryan languages
  • Single language