Mediterranean Lingua Franca
The lingua franca (Italian for " Frankish language ") is a Romanesque -based pidgin language by the language contact between novels and speakers not Romance languages , in particular Arabic, originated in the Middle Ages and primarily as trade and transport language until the 19th century was widespread in the southern and eastern shores of the Mediterranean.
Your name lingua franca since the 18th century has been generalized to a generic name for similar types of mixing or pidgin languages. Today, this term also any natural or artificial languages such as English or Esperanto meant, which are habitually used as secondary and lingua franca between speakers of different language communities. Whether in the case of a natural language have led to the Pidginization caused by such use changes and simplifications, then this is not decisive for the classification as a lingua franca.
Letters and plurals
In German spellings Lingua Franca, Lingua franca or lingua franca are used without can be derived from the case normally, whether the original or the generic extended meaning is meant. For the formation of the plural, which is possible only under heading of the generic meaning, the Latin form Linguae is in German mainly francae (or linguae francae ) used, comparatively rare, however, the Italian form lingue franchement (or lingue franchement ) that the memory of the origin preserves the concept, or borrowed from English hybrid form (s) Lingua francas.
The Romanesque -based lingua franca
Italian franco / franchi, originally a from the name of the Franks derived designation for ( northern) Italians and French, has been enhanced by the Crusades and the Latin- Frankish Empire in Byzantium in meaning to " Western Europeans, Westerners Catholic (s) " and included in this meaning by Arabs, Turks, Greeks, Persians, Slavs and Romanians. The term " lingua franca " seems to have been influenced by the Arabic in Al- Andalus, where is occupied by the geographer Ibn Khurradadbih that lingua franca ( al Lugha al - ifranjiyya ) to Spanish ( andalusiyya ) and Greek ( rumiyya ) was delineated. As an alternative name since the 19th century, the resulting probably under French influence in Algeria expression ( langue ) sabir spread ( Erstbeleg 1859, notwithstanding already Molière ) and, more rarely, petit mauresque ( Erstbeleg 1830). In lingua franca, parlare franco, sapere franco and the correspondences especially in Greek sources, depending on the definition context and in analogy to the general development of meaning of franco / franchi also be expected with different meanings like " French ", "Italian" or " Western language ".
The lingua franca is contrary to earlier reviews is not a mixed language or defaced single language or from speaker to speaker is changing speak broken, but a genuine Pidgin on Romanesque influence with Arabic, Turkish, Persian, Greek and Slavic influences, which in its basic lexical stock and its grammatical structure, despite its widespread use and centuries of use has a remarkable unity. The literature in some widespread claim that the base was a spoken between Genoa and Marseille Provençal, is linguistically incorrect and also from historical and geographical reasons, untenable.
It has remained a secondary language, thus has not developed into a acquired as a native language Creole language. The conditions for use were trade contacts, military contacts, mixed settlement and - not to be underestimated - Piracy and the presence of Roman slaves in Arab- Turkish and Greek -speaking area. Whether or to what extent the novels lingua franca among themselves used as a lingua franca, is not sure to decide on the basis of the obtained sources.
The lingua franca is attested in the sources by metalinguistic descriptions eg in travel reports, with quotations and technical language terms, for example, in the nautical language. She also found sporadically for literary texts using, for example, in the anonymous Contrasto della Zerbitana of 1284/1305, Gigio Artemio Giancarlis La Zigana, printed in 1548, to a lesser extent among other things, at Fazio degli Uberti, Goldoni, Molière ( The Bourgeois Gentleman ), Calderón and Lope de Vega, however, has not established itself as a written language. This makes it difficult the conditions for the investigation of their precise historical development and geographical differentiation. In the latter you can at least begin to identify with the evidence of North Africa, a predominantly Spanish base in the western North Africa and a predominantly Italian base in eastern North Africa, who meet in Algiers. In connection with the conquest of Algeria by the French was the local lingua franca by the intensified French language contact and manuals such as the Dictionnnaire de la langue franque ou petit mauresque (Marseille 1830) Frenchified, but remained as such until the end of the 19th century still in use.