- Constructed language plan language World auxiliary language Esperanto
Ido is a constructed language that was created in 1907 by the French mathematician and philosopher Louis Couturat in coordination with the French tutor Louis de Beaufront based on Esperanto. In 1887, the Esperanto them not appeared uniform and logical enough. So they used in Ido only the letters of the Latin alphabet and renounced the diacritics of Esperanto. In addition, they designed the Esperanto vocabulary partly after the principle of maximum internationality to, meaning the approximation to the Romance languages. They gave her a project also against the Esperanto advanced word derivation system.
On the occasion of the World Exhibition in Paris in 1900, a delegation for the adoption of an international auxiliary language has been launched. By 1907, the delegation were 310 societies of scholars, merchants, employees and workers as well as 1250 high school teachers as individual members of a commission of linguists, scientists and philosophers was bei.1907 from this delegation elected. This included, inter alia, the German chemist and Nobel laureate Wilhelm Ostwald as Chairman, the Danish linguist Otto Jespersen and the French linguist and promoter of Esperanto Marquis Louis de Beaufront to. The Commission should choose from among the existing languages a plan and promote. It popped up on one of the sessions on the brochure of an unknown author called " Ido ". Ido is an Esperanto word meaning derivative. The Ido project viewed himself as a reformed Esperanto in the tradition of Ludwik Zamenhof's proposals for reform of 1894. A majority of the committee 's delegation took the project, including de Beaufront, the representative of the Esperanto project. 1908 declared de Beaufront that he himself was " Ido ". The project itself, however, seems to be a joint work of de Beaufront, the Esperanto Alfred Michaux and his Louis Couturat especially - Couturat was co-founder of the delegation and had been allowed to not propose a separate project.
Language Historically, the Ido not be explained without the Esperanto; Naked follows the assessment Drezens that the differences between the two languages ( vocabulary and grammar) not be more than 15 percent. Esperanto and Idisten could understand each other without major problems.
Ido could win between ten and twenty percent of the members of the Esperanto Language Committee for itself. What proportion went over all speakers of Esperanto to Ido, do however not say with certainty; the esperantist Edmond Privat this share in historiography de Esperanto estimated at three to four per cent, without specifying what this estimate is based.
For the development of the Ido movement was problematic that the Idisten ever developed their language. In addition to the death of Louis Couturat in 1914 also hindered the emergence of other plan language projects, primarily that of the Occidental from 1922 and Novial 1928, the further spread of Ido. Nevertheless, there are Ido clubs to this day.
Distribution and target
Today there are an estimated 1000-2500 Ido spokesman. The Ido 2004 conference in Kiev had 14 participants from six countries. In September 2005, a further Ido conference was held in Toulouse. The Ido Conference 2006 was held from 25 to 28 August in Berlin. From 19 to 25 October 2007, a conference on the occasion of the 100th anniversary was held in Paris. The 2008 Conference was held in Neviges near Wuppertal instead, the 2009 in Riga and Tallinn.
The Ido supporters are organized internationally in the ULI ( Uniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido = " Union for the international language Ido "). In more than 20 countries have national organizations.
Some journals are published regularly:
Literature is found mainly in the form of electronic publications. Printed literature can be obtained from Ido libraries.
The aim of Ido is to serve alongside the existing national languages for international communication:
The twelve main rules
A detailed presentation of Ido grammar can be found in Kompleta Gramatiko detaloza di la linguo internaciona Ido by Louis de Beaufront. An outline of the history and language Ido rules in German language can be found in About the structure and development of Ido compared to Esperanto by Günter Anton.
Assessment in interlinguistics
The Inter linguists, Esperanto and Interlingua - trailer Tazio Carlevaro According to the Ido movement is still alive, but in a kind Residualzustand. His presentation after the Ido Academy held the language for something willfully Feasible. We need to reform to time Ido of time, responsive with the progress of linguistics. In contrast, the Esperanto believed the linguistic progress is something automatic and rooted in the needs of the speaker.
His colleague and Esperanto - trailer Detlev Blanke criticized most commonly Ido or to its supporters that they would not have recognized the importance of ensuring the stability of a plan language. The basic attitude, Ido must be constantly improved 've given subjective perceptions of "improvements" space. It maintains there is no linguistic criteria by which the quality of a language is determined unambiguously. Furthermore, it was, for example, unrealistic to require only one meaning per word, and the Ido lexicographers have not kept by this, so bare.
In his opinion, in spite of everything Ido have a special meaning for the interlinguistics. Among other things, it became clear how important is the stability of a plan language, and that drag individual changes to a planned language, a chain of further reforms. Important is also the role of the belles lettres, which was underestimated by the Idisten.
Ido heavily inspired by Esperanto, so that texts in Ido are understandable for Esperanto speakers, if they are familiar with Romance languages. Who has not learned Roman or Germanic language except Esperanto may have with the differences as ĉevalo in Esperanto and Ido in kavalo for " horse" difficulties. In addition, there are a number of words that have different meaning in both languages , eg: grava in Esperanto "important" in Ido "severe" legitimate "read" in Esperanto, Ido in the " laws" naski in Esperanto " give birth, " in Ido " born ".