Izaak Kramsztyk

Izaak Kramsztyk (* 1814 in Warsaw, † September 24, 1889 ) was a Polish rabbi, journalist and patriot. He was the grandfather of Roman Kramsztyk.


Kramsztyk was born the son of a wealthy and respected Jewish businessman in the Warsaw district of Praga. He studied - against the wishes of parents - which was founded in 1826 in Warsaw Rabbinical School, where he worked as a teacher of the Talmud of 1837, until the forced closure of the facility in 1863. As a reformer, he taught him the first school teacher in Polish. On April 10, 1852 he held the first rabbi, a Polish-language sermon in the newly opened Warsaw synagogue on Nalewki.

Resistance against Russian occupiers

Kramsztyk was a known requestor of Polish independence during the Russian occupation. In 1861, he joined with the rabbis Dow Ber Meisels and Marcus Jastrow for the closure of Jewish worship a - as a sign of solidarity with the Catholic Church, whose churches were vandaliert of Russian Cossack troops. On 2 March 1861, the three rabbis took part in a demonstration at the funeral of five Polish victims in clashes with Russian forces on 27 February 1861 Powązki cemetery. As a result, the rabbis were arrested and jailed briefly. In November 1861 Kramsztyk was again arrested and held for several months in prison in the Warsaw Citadel caught. His expulsion from the occupied Poland was, he was sent to the forced exile in Bobruisk. However, he returned to Warsaw and worked briefly for the government Aleksander Wielopolskis, where he developed ideas concerning the reform of the education of Jews. In 1863 he took part in the January Uprising and was arrested again after the suppression of the uprising and exiled to Siberia this time. He returned in May 1867 back to Warsaw. After his return he was not allowed to work as a rabbi or teacher as politically unreliable person.

Writer and author

Kramsztyk was a renowned author and translator of Jewish writings. In 1856 he published the first part of " Kazania " ( sermons ) in Polish. His works included also " O Talmudzie ", a translation of Emanuel Oscar Deutsch's work on the Talmud, the moral theology text " amude ha - dat ve Yesode ha - musar " ( The pillars of faith and the foundation of morality ) and a Polish translation of the biblical book of Psalms ( " Przypowieści Salomona "). Another edition of the " Kazania " was published posthumously.

Kramsztyk died after a long illness in 1889; he was buried at the Jewish cemetery on Okopowa Street in Warsaw ( section 26, row 11). Some of his children were members of the influential Jewish bourgeoisie in Warsaw.

Publications (selection)

  • Jutrzence
  • Izraelicie
  • Przypowieści Salomonowe, 1878
  • Pravda wiary, czyli Zasady religii mojżeszowej, 1971
  • Kazania Izaaka Kramsztyka, 1892

References and Notes