The Gianicolo (Latin: Janiculum, also called Janiculum ) is a hill in Rome, which stretches from Trastevere area along the right bank of the Tiber to the Vatican City along. The northwestern part of the hill is in the extraterritorial possession of the Holy See, there is, among others, the Pontificia Universitas Urban. He counts - as the Pincio - not to the actual seven hills of Rome.
The entire area remained excluded until the time of Emperor Aurelian from the pomerium, the ideal boundary of the sacred territory of Rome. Under Aurelian, the urban area was expanded and included, among others, of the hills.
The name goes back to the ancient Roman god Janus.
The Janiculum was indispensable for the control and the defense of the city, so that as a sign of security a flag was hoisted when held public meetings on the Campus Martius.
On this hill important people were buried as the king Numa Pompilius and the poet Ennius and Caecilius Statius. The hill again played an important role, as the French troops. Pope Pius IX had been launched against the newly formed Roman Republic to help, on 29 April 1849 took their attack.
The reasons given by Giuseppe Garibaldi volunteers were forced after two months of hard struggle for the task and the triumvirate of Mazzini, Armellini and Saffi had to go into exile.
In 1895 a large monument to Garibaldi was built on the highest point of the hill, flanked by a number of busts of other personalities of the Italian freedom struggle. Along the road that leads from the Janiculum to the Vatican, also is a monument to Garibaldi's wife Anita Garibaldi on horseback with pistol in hand and child on the arm that had been buried there by the will of Garibaldi.
From Italians emigrated to Argentina in 1911 a lighthouse '' Faro del Gianicolo '' was donated, which was built by Manfredo Manfredi and evening in the national colors of green, white, red lights of the city.
The hill has a height of 82 m slm. Underground, there is a huge bus station, which also has a direct connection to St. Peter's Square.