JGR Class 860

The JNR Class 860 (Japanese国 鉄860形(蒸 気 机关 车) kokutetsu 860 - gata ( Joki Kikansha ) dt " (steam locomotive ) State Railways class 860 ") was a Japanese tank locomotive. Completed in 1893 it was the first domestically produced steam locomotive of Japan. Manufacturers were the Kobe works of the railway authority of the Ministry of Communications ( Teishin - shō ), the forerunner of the Ministry of Railways for operating the state railways (English Japanese Government Railways, JGR, and later as State Railways Japanese National Railways, JNR ) was responsible.


The class 860 was completed in the Kobe works in May 1893 ( Meiji 26). She was a two-cylinder compound steam locomotive and had the wheel arrangement 2-4-2 ( 1B1 ).

Had the oversight of the planning and design of the locomotive essentially the railway inspector (汽车 监察 方, kisha - kansatsukata; . Engl Locomotive Superintendent ) of the Railway Office Kobe ( Kobe tetsudōkyoku ), a regional office of the Railway Authority. The position was then dressed by the Englishman Richard Trevithick Francis, a grandson of Richard Trevithick, who had been brought together with his brother Francis Henry as "Contract foreigners" in 1888, after Japan. Trevithick had developed in England a prototype of an integrated steam locomotive. Together with the two Japanese engineers Hikozō Mori (森 彦 三) and Yoshimatsu Ōta (太 田吉松) began in October 1892 with the construction. In the Kobe works exclusively worked Japanese technicians; the components were manufactured but only to a small extent in Germany and came to a great extent from the United Kingdom.

The majority of the components for the important parts of the locomotive - axes, boiler or cylinder - were imported from England. The assembly and the production of some iron and brass parts were in the Kobe Works.

The construction plans were based on the 860 at the same time used as a standard imported A8 ( class 400). The outer dimensions are almost identical. However, the front lower part of the boiler with the smoke chamber had a characteristic fan-like shape, which also influenced later designs Trevithick in the Kobe Works.

Service history

Upon completion, the engine first as " Class AE (221 ​​)" was (AE形(221 ​​) ) is used on the route between Kyoto and Kobe - a section of the later Tōkaidō Main Line - where comparative tests with other locomotives of the wheel arrangement 2-4 -2 ( 1B1 ) were performed. They went to the same timetable as the 1890 was created by Nasmyth Wilson and Co. No. 179 Class L ( JNR Class 500) and No. 88 (Class L, 1888 by Nasmyth Wilson), who later on in long term use of tests best performer. The tests revealed a carbon savings of between 10 and 15 percent.

Despite this advantage, the development of composite steam locomotives from the state railways was discontinued. They have been used effectively only in the San'yo tetsudō on the later state San'yo Main Line, the imported Vauclain composite steam locomotives ( JNR Class 8450 ) began.

The class 860 was designated as a 1894 locomotive number 137 and classified in 1898 by the railway department of the Ministry of Communications as a class A9 (A9形). In 1902, she was charged with Class A8 ( JNR Class 400, 500, 600, 700) combined to form a group and as numbered 885. In 1909 she was in the classification of the railway ministry for class 860

In 1918 introduced the 860 ceased operation on the main islands and was transferred to the Karafuto -chō tetsudō and used there until March 1929 on the east coast of Karafuto ( Sakhalin). There she was probably broken - her whereabouts are not known.