Josef Kaizl

Josef Kaizl ( born June 10, 1854 in Volyně, Bohemia; † August 19, 1901 in Myslkovice ) was a Czech politician and economist.


The son of an employee attended high school in Prague's Old Town and in Leitomischl. It was followed by a study of the law from 1871 to 1875 at the Law Faculty of Charles University in Prague in 1877 to study economics at the University of Strasbourg in Gustav von Schmoller and Georg Friedrich Knapp. Under the leadership of Schmoller he wrote his work The struggle for freedom of trade and trade reform in Bavaria from 1799-1868, which was also his habilitation thesis in Prague later.

From 1879 he lectured Political Economy at the Charles University, and after their split up in 1883, he was appointed professor at the Czech university. He belonged to the circle of professors around Jan Gebauer and Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, the services provided by their professional and public appearance a great contribution to the Czech education, culture and politics.

In 1885 he was elected to the Altböhmen in the Imperial Parliament, fell out with their members, leaving them again and returned his mandate. In 1890, he stepped over to the young Bohemia and worked here with Masaryk on a new path of realism. In elections in March 1891, the Party of Bohemia Jung got the most votes and Kaizl was again selected to 1901 as a deputy in the Imperial Parliament. While many, including Masaryk, the young left Bohemia, Kaizl remained loyal to the party and became its leading exponent.

With the help of Jan Podlipný, Gustav Eim and Václav Škarda he succeeded the radical wing to unite and call a realistic program to life. In 1895, he exclaimed, his so-called stages Policy. The idea that the enforcement of the Bohemian demands could not follow at a stroke but only in stages, enabled him to flexibly negotiate with the government and to support them if necessary, as an opposition party. In his political career, he showed high political sensitivity and technical expertise.

From 1898 to 1899 he was Minister of Finance of Thun- government.


Kaizl published in various journals, including cooperation with Masaryk in time ( Cas ) but also in the foreign press. His other works were published in German and Czech languages, some in Italian. Noticed he made with his work Bohemian thoughts ( České myšlénky ), in which he criticized, among other things Masaryk. He defended the Czech liberalism. He saw the state as a legalized and organized violent executive body, which in society has regulatory responsibilities. He emphasized, however, that in modern society decreases the force execution of the state with increasing political emancipation of the population. The political organization is growing along with the company and expand the field of their activity.

Works in German language

  • The struggle for the freedom of trade and trade reform in Bavaria from 1799 to 1868. In addition to an introductory survey of the evolution of the guild system and the freedom of trade in Germany. Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot 1879 ( State and social scientific research, No. 6 Bd = 2.1 )
  • The doctrine of the pass-through of taxes. Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, 1882


  • Finance. Part 1-2 / Authorized translation from the Czech Alois grains. Vienna: Manz, 1900-1901

Works in Czech

  • Národní hospodářství. 1883
  • O postátnění železnic v Rakousku. 1883
  • Obnovený řád Živnostenský. 1883
  • Vyrovnání s Uhry 1866 a 1877. 1886
  • Finanční Veda. 1888
  • Náprava rakouské měny. 1890
  • Lid Selsky, jeho poroba a vymanění v zemích českých. 1895
  • České myšlénky. 1895
  • O státoprávním Českém programu. 1896
  • Z mého života. , 1909.

Journal articles

  • O úroku a lichvě. Osvěta in 1879.