The Kurilensee (Russian Курильское озеро Kurilskoje Ozero ) is a caldera on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia near the southern tip.
The caldera was created around 7600 years ago in a massive volcanic eruption more than 7 on the Vulkanexplosivitätsindex ( VEI ) in which 140-170 cubic kilometers of tephra were ejected. Thus this eruption is one of the strongest in the Holocene ( the last ice age ). The first eruptions were probably held in a lake that was located on the site of the present Kurilensees. After a crater was formed above the water level, it first came to Plinian eruptions; later formed pyroclastic flows that are up to 50 kilometers spread out in all directions. In the vicinity of the lake, there are up to 150 meters thick layers of pumice. Ash fell on large parts of Kamchatka and distributed primarily to the Northwest, where she is still detectable in 1000 miles away. The emptied magma chamber collapsed, forming an 8 by 14 km wide caldera. The eruption was preceded by at least 1500 years of dormancy.
After formation of the caldera volcanoes Ilinskaja Sopka emerged in the northeast and Diki Greben in the west of the lake. In addition, several lava domes were formed. One of them is Serdtze Alaida, in the presence of a small island in Kurilensee that rises from about 300 meters depth.
The Kurilensee with a maximum depth of 316 meters, the second deepest lake in Russia after Lake Baikal. The lake is 104 meters above sea level. Prove shore terraces, that the water level was previously up to 150 meters higher. In the presence of the Kurilensee drained by the river Osernaja westward into the Sea of Okhotsk; an older outflow was to the east to the Pacific Ocean.