MARC standards

Machine - Readable Cataloging (MARC ) is a data format used in librarianship.

The Cataloging format was developed under the auspices of the Library of Congress in the 1960s and provides the protocol in order to exchange bibliographic information through the computer. Its data elements form the basis for most of currently used library catalogs. Currently seem to be of importance especially UNIMARC and MARC 21. The common authority file (GND ) for example, works with the exchange format MARC 21 Authority.


  • USMARC: MARC version of the USA, now obsolete.
  • CAN / MARC: MARC version for Canada, now obsolete.
  • MARC 21: the "harmonized" version of USMARC and CAN / MARC
  • UNIMARC (Universal Machine Readable Cataloging ): created by IFLA 1977
  • AUSMARC: MARC version for Australia, published by the National Library of Australia in 1973; USMARC adopted in 1991
  • BIBSYS -MARC: in use at all Norwegian university libraries, the National Library of Norway etc.
  • CMARC: MARC version of the People's Republic of China, based on UNIMARC
  • DANMARC: MARC version for Denmark, based on MARC21
  • INTERMARC: MARC version of the Bibliothèque nationale de France
  • NORMARC: MARC version for Norway, based on MARC21