Model building

As a model is defined as the production of a concrete, three-dimensional, physical object. This can be both reduced and simplified simulation of a real or planned prototype, as well as a template ( original model or prototype) for creating a negative mold ( mold ) for the production of castings.

Model as a replica


Important for the quality of a model is the scale fidelity. The benchmark is defined as the ratio of the size of the model to the size of the original. Which scale is used depends on the application and purpose of the model. Depending on the scale of detail of models is very different. In the model all kinds of materials can be used also depends on the scope and purpose of the model. Preferably inexpensive materials are used, which are easy to process.


  • Stereolithography
  • Selective Laser Sintering
  • Multi Jet Modeling

Hobby - Model

Leisure default -powered model is concerned with the image of objects of daily life or history, either from original materials, from substitute materials ( plastic model, cardboard model ), or from industrially prefabricated components (eg plastic, cardboard, wood, carbon, GRP, glass fiber, balsa wood ). Examples of model engines, model cars, model rockets, ships, aircraft models, model railways and animal models can be mentioned.

One can distinguish between (some remote ) function models, but also the accommodating various special functions, or stand models, where usually the highest possible degree of realism is desired. A special category of state models is the figure modeling. Often figures and models are embedded in dioramas.


The radio-controlled models sporting competitions are held in a number of disciplines. These include RC cars, model truck trial, a sub- division of the truck model construction; Model airplanes and helicopters start to model flying days. In the plastic model, there are competitions in which the faithful reproduction is evaluated. One hand, race the amount of special functions of a ship or detail on a ship model events are driven, on the other hand rated. There are also racing series for model ships, such as the ECO IDC. The events are usually organized by model associations.


  • The largest Modellbau-Messe Austria takes place annually in late October in Messe Wien.
  • The largest miniature model park is located in the Turkish city of Istanbul on the European side in the Beyoğlu district. With an area of ​​six acres of park Miniatürk belongs to the largest in the world.

Scientific Model

In universities or large museums diverse modeling techniques are used to facilitate the viewer's understanding of otherwise difficult to understand relationships or functional mechanisms. The three-dimensional object is for the viewer also becoming easier to understand than a two-dimensional picture or a digital model. The range of applied standards reductions ranging from about models in original size ( scale 1: 1 ) to enlargements. To the faithful reproduction of the original model in this extraordinary demands are made. The reception process is thereby facilitated similar as the difference between an "exact" photography and a scientific drawing in anatomy.

In many areas, only allows a very accurate "live" representation, as for example on land lose molluscs like jellyfish or squid to their original shape and the viewer does not offer the same look, you might remember from living the object.

Basis for the work of a scientific model builder are photos, scanning micrographs, preparations and the study of living animals. The use of different materials, such as glass in the 19th century make Blaschkas, or modern plastics, for example, modeling pastes, PU foams and resin laminates allows (usually individual pieces ) to make very high-quality models. The specialists in this area have extensive knowledge of the different disciplines of science and sculptural skills and finished in months of work, true to the original models.

  • Emergence of a squid model ( Sepia officinalis).

Sepia Hans Dappen raw model

Sepia Hans- Dappen construction

Sepia Hans- Dappen coloring

Sepia officinalis model

Of experimental model

Models can help to capture characteristics of the modeled object experimentally. The model is usually easier ( cheaper ) to manufacture than an original and contains the necessary accuracy for the experiment. Common uses are models for the investigation of flow in the wind tunnel or towing tank.

Model in mold

In the casting technique of the craft or the metalworking industry templates for the rebuild of molds in mold are also called model or their production model. As a template for the subsequent casting product they most often bear a larger scale to the disappearance (metal casting) account. This parameter must be considered as material shrinkage on cooling, material consumption and easy removability from the mold ( mold slope ). This work is performed by model carpenters. By 2009, the knowledge of apprenticeship model construction engineers in the metal industry or in apprenticeship model builder specializing in production technology were taught in the craft in Germany. The education profession is reorganized since 1 August 2009 and is called Technical modeller. There are the fields of perception, foundry, body and production.