The nose (Latin nasus, Greek rhis ) is in the anatomy of the organ in vertebrates that houses the nostrils and the nasal cavity. In humans and most other mammals, the nose is either in the center or face to the front tip of the snout. Behind the nasal cavity is the pharynx that connects food and air.

Nose of mammals

Outside, a distinction (Greek nasion ), bridge of the nose and tip of the nose and the lateral side of the nose in the human nose bridge of the nose.

Anatomically, the nose is one of the outer and upper respiratory tract. The nostrils ( nares ) leading into the interior of the nose, each first into the nasal vestibule ( vestibulum nasi), which is lined by hairy outer skin, then in the actual nasal cavity ( cavum nasi). The nasal cavity is divided by the nasal septum (septum nasi ) into two separate departments, and lined by a mucous membrane with ciliated epithelium. The left and right nasal cavity are each divided by the bone -supported nasal turbinates. There are three nasal passages between the nasal turbinates.

In humans, there is a natural narrowness of the nasal entrance, known as " nasal valve " ( ostium internum ) is called. The narrowness is created between the bottom edge of the triangular cartilage and the nasal septum, externally visible through a recovery above the alar cartilages, which stabilize the external nares. A human nose is 5.8 cm long in Europe in women on average 5.1 cm and in men on average.

When the whales nose to the top of the head has moved and closed. The nose of the elephant has become a long, muscular manipulation organ, the proboscis.


Through the nose, the exhaled air is turned on and exhaled, wherein the cold air is heated on the surface of the nasal mucosa and moistened. The thereby cooled and dried mucous wins while exhaling back a large part of the heat and humidity. The nose hairs catch from rough and nasal secretions fine foreign particles. The nasal secretion is continuously transported by the movement of the cilia in the direction of the throat.

Thanks to the nose can breathe with your mouth closed. This is utilized in the circular breathing.

The turbinates are so-called fake erectile tissue, so they can change their size considerably.

In humans, the nasal breathing is not uniform in physical rest through both nostrils instead. This process is referred to as the nasal cycle. The air flow through a respective one is reduced, to allow its regeneration mucosa. After a certain time the main power switches to the other nostril, which vonstattengeht unnoticed in a healthy nose.

The olfactory region of the nose is the seat of the olfactory organ and thus the olfactory perception.


Diseases of the nose are the subject of Oto- Rhino-Laryngology. Interdisciplinary involvement of Dermatology and maxillo- facial surgery.

  • Rhinitis as inflammation of the nasal cavity; Cold with a runny nose; allergic rhinitis
  • Nosebleeds ( epistaxis)
  • Nostril Eczema
  • Deviated septum
  • Boil
  • Rhinophyma
  • Fibrous Nasenpapel
  • Cancer: basal cell carcinoma, squamous, rare sarcoma and melanoma

Nasal application

The nose can also serve as an access for enjoyment and addictive substances (eg snuff, cocaine ), medications ( ointments, drops, sprays, inhalations, etc.) and general anesthetic.

Transnasal feeding tube

In artificial feeding a patient, a feeding tube through the nose ( transnasal -word ) are placed connecting the transfer system with a probe food supplied to the patient - can be - applied.