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The orography ( oros, Greek: ὄρος =, Mountain ' and -graphy =, drawing ' or ' write ') is a specialty within various earth sciences and deals with height structures on the natural surface of the earth, the course and arrangement of mountains and the flow conditions of water. The corresponding adjective called orographic phenomena, properties and relationships of slope angles and slope directions ( exposure) of the site and its flowing waters be embossed.

In everyday language, the orography is received mainly by naming the banks of rivers.

Particularly close links have orographic topics topography, geomorphology and hydrology.

Orographic definition of the left and right side of the river

The " orographic left side" of a stream is that side which in the flow direction - that is seen from the source towards the mouth - is left. The opposite side is referred to accordingly as " orographic right". The tributaries of a stream are classified according to this criterion. For example, the Main is a right tributary of the Rhine, the rivers, the Sava and Tisza are each the most water rights ( Save) and left ( Tisza ) tributary of the Danube.

For the name of two sides of a river is in geographical texts are usually simply "left" and "right " are used; often to precision toiling in to general texts before and never used suffix " orographic " is unnecessary in the jargon, because a clear definition exists and is also known. That the everyday language may well follow this economical way of speaking shows the classification of cities on both sides of the Rhine from Basel to the Lower Rhine in the right - and left-bank, which is common and understandable.

Technical analysis

From professionals orographic methods are used mainly in geoscientific analyzes of river systems by tributaries as well as mountains for dominance, Vertical separation or orographic dominance.

Thus one speaks of " orographic highly differentiated " area when the mountain ranges relatively irregular or the valleys are cut deep. " Orographic regularly ", however, is the breakdown of most young fold mountains and orographic are uniformly about the plateaus of many geologically old hull Mountains. On the other hand can be a mixed form of these typings a hill country. As the " orographic compact " is described, for example, the Jizera Mountains.

About long mountain slopes one can often observe special cloud formations. They are called " orographic excited " by the solar thermals and the resulting updrafts - and the dragon or gliding energetically exploited ( wind set-up ). Detail such processes can be studied by digital terrain models and calculation of exposure, such as in a project in the Black Forest.

In geology and geophysics, there are significant correlations between the orographic preferred directions of mountain ranges or valleys, geological faults and the orientation of the prevailing gap systems in the rocks.