SS-N -12 Sandbox is the NATO code for a sea-based anti-ship missile of Soviet production. The system name in the Russian armed forces is P -500 and P-1000 basalt volcano. The GRAU index 4K80 is.
The P -500 Basalt was developed as a successor system of the SS -N -3 Shaddock. Compared with the SS-N -3, the new missile should have a higher airspeed and an improved survivability. The new missile was designed to combat strategic naval targets such as aircraft carriers, cruisers and amphibious assault ships. The Navy leadership demanded a missile with a range of at least 500 km, so this could be started outside the combat radius of the former carrier aircraft. The development in the design office OKB -52 Tschelomei (later NPO Maschinostrojenija ) began in 1963. The design of the SS-N -12 is based on the P-6/P-35 Progress. The development version was known as the P -350 Basalt ( 4K77 ). Due to various difficulties and because this version did not reach the required range of 500 km, the project was canceled. Based on this design was the P -500 Basalt ( 4K80 ). The first firing tests were carried out in 1969. After further modifications, the system was introduced in 1975 in the Soviet Navy. The P -500 was given by the NATO designation SS-N -12 Sandbox mod 1 The development of the second series version P-1000 Vulkan began in 1979. Compared to the predecessor model has the P-1000 has a new seeker head, new electronics, an improved engines and parts made from titanium. It was introduced in 1987, finally, the Soviet naval forces and got the name of NATO SS-N- 12 Sandbox mod 2 The following units have been equipped with the SS -N -12:
- Aircraft carriers of the Kiev - class with eight or twelve missiles (Baku ) plus eight in reserve
- Cruiser Slava class, each with 16 missiles
- Submarines of the Echo II class, each with six missiles
- Submarines of the Juliett class, each with four missiles
Primary is the SS-N -12 to combat ship targets. In a secondary role also land targets can be combated. Can be launched from ships and submarines from the SS -N -12. The submarines have to surface for the missile launch. The missiles are housed in cylindrical steel containers and are fired directly from them. At the start of placing two 4L44 - rocket booster the missile from the steel container. Immediately after leaving the starting container unfold the wings. After 2-3 seconds, the rocket boosters have burned out and are discarded. Now ignites the KP -17 -300 turbojet cruise engine. The weapons complex P -500 Basalt comprises a complex fire control system for controlling a volume group or a Seekriegsverbandes. The fire control system has been equipped with a software package to control a missile volley of time equal to eight missiles against a convoy of ships and coordinate. Need to open up the battle are recorded in the fire control system, the approximate position and the course objectives. These are determined by means of sonar, radar and ELINT from the starting platform. Similarly, the target data by Tu- 95R Bear -D or Ka -25 Hormone B reconnaissance platforms can come. The complex P-1000 also has the Legenda target system. By also satellite data (eg RORSAT ) can be received. Four missiles are programmed to the primary target ( aircraft carrier ), while the other four missiles are programmed to the remaining ships of the association. The eight missiles are short series started. After starting assumes a predetermined missile the lead. While the other seven missiles remain at an altitude of 100 m at low altitude, the guide missile rises to an altitude of 4,000-7,000 m in order to increase its Auffassreichweite. The cruise in the target area is done autonomously by means of inertial navigation platform where the missiles fly in a pre-programmed formation. A radar altimeter provides the necessary safety distance between the missile and the sea surface. Updated target data can be transmitted by the launch platform for the missile by means of a data link. During the march the flight guidance missile determined by the on-board passive radar seeker objective data on the current position of the targets. If the missile salvo in the previously calculated target area, the guiding missile activates the onboard active radar seeker head. This is in each case switched on only for short time intervals. The target data determined are sent via data link to the rest of the missile salvo and to the launch platform. The other missiles continue to retain their low approach vector to prevent early detection and control. If the lead missile destroyed, another whose role can be assigned. The final target approach enable all the missiles own radar seeker head and fly random evasive maneuvers. In addition, the onboard active electronic jamming system is activated to disrupt the missile defense systems of the ships. Once the primary objective of a disk group is destroyed, grab the rest of the missile salvo to the other ships in the carrier group. To protect against short-range defense systems (eg CIWS ) of the hull of the SS-N- 12 is provided with an armor. The missile was designed to sink a large warship with a single hit, or at least make it operational incapable. With the nuclear variant of an entire fleet dressing can be destroyed with one blow.
- P -350 Basalt: ( 4K77 ) Initial version. Only prototype. Range 350-480 km.
- P -500 Basalt: ( 4K80 ) 1 Series version. Reach 550 km. Cruising speed Mach 2.5.
- P-1000 Vulkan: 2nd series version with a new seeker, new engines, new electronics and titanium armor. Range 700 km. Cruising speed Mach 2.6.
At present, the SS-N -12 is still on the cruisers of the Slava class in use. The successor system is the SS-N -19 Shipwreck. The SS-N -12 was never exported.