The Physiology ( altgr. φύσις physis, nature ' and λόγος lógos, teaching ', ' reason ' or physiologica = Natural History ) is a branch of biology, the study of the physical and biochemical processes in the cells, tissues and organs of all living beings; it also involves the interaction of all life processes in the whole organism in its consideration. Goal of physiology is to formulate possible at the molecular level also predictions about the behavior of the system under consideration (for example, metabolism, exercise, germination, growth, reproduction ).
The term physiology was coined around 1525 by Jean François Fernel. Physiologically is researched and trained in biology, medicine, psychology and sports science.
In the colloquial language of doctors is also physiologically - not directly related to the field of physiology - in the sense of normal, occurring in healthy people, not used morbid. Accordingly, non-physiological or pathological means a deviation from the normal, occurring in healthy people or desirable life processes.
Main areas of physiology
The topics of physiology are extraordinarily diverse. In particular, she works together with the biochemistry, which was formerly also called Physiological Chemistry '. The view of physiology is directed toward the dynamics of biological processes and their causal relationships; So they analyzed more changes such as information processing for static states. The most important tools - experimental designs and measurement techniques - come in field physiology from physics and chemistry.
Derived from the traditional outline of biology, there are two focal points
- Plant Physiology in the Department of Botany and
- Animal Physiology in the Department of Zoology.
In addition to plants, animals and humans, the physiology is concerned with all other living things.
The human physiology is an independent subspecialty in medicine. Without a targeted pharmacology physiology would not be possible; because it can describe action, properties, advantages and disadvantages of drugs in part and also to predict.
Physiologists analyze the basic life processes at different levels of complexity; Examples are:
- Enzyme reactions in individual cells
- Photosynthesis as a salient feature of aerial plant organs
- Hormonal control loops that affect the living things in its entirety.
Pathological states are investigated, for which it has established with the pathophysiology own subspecialty. The limits of physiology to anatomy, biochemistry, molecular biology, psychology and neurobiology are fluid.
At German universities, the human physiology is usually located at the medical faculties and, with biochemistry, anatomy and psychology as well as the three natural sciences biology, chemistry and physics to the pre-clinical subjects, which are within the Physikum a state intermediate examination.
Training of specialists in physiology in Germany
Order after a completed medical studies to work in Germany as a " specialist in physiology ", it requires a four-year training period. This can be credited in another medical specialty one year.