Port Jackson ( Sydney Harbour also ) is the natural harbor of Sydney, Australia. There you will find the emblem of the city, the Sydney Opera House and the Sydney Harbour Bridge.
Port Jackson forms with an area of 50 square kilometers and 19 kilometers, the main arm. From it branch off other estuaries such as the Middle Harbour. The perimeter of the estuary is 317 kilometers. Geologically, Port Jackson a Ria, a coastal type with a narrow and long, deeply penetrating into the land bay. In this the Parramatta River flows.
In the harbor there are numerous islands, including Shark Iceland, Clark Iceland, Iceland Fort Denison, Goat Iceland, Iceland Cockatoo, Spectacle Iceland, Iceland Snapper and Rodd Iceland. Some earlier Islands ( Bennelong Iceland, Iceland and Garden Berry Iceland ) are now permanently connected to the mainland as a result of land reclamation.
South and west of the harbor is the flat to slightly undulating Cumberland Plain. North of the harbor is the Hornsby Plateau, a up to 200 meters high hill country, which is crossed by wooded valleys.
The area of present-day Port Jackson was settled about 40,000 years ago by Aboriginal people. At the beginning of colonization, there were about 4,000 to 8,000 people who were members of three distinct tribes. These were the Darug, Dharawal and the Guringai. Although their settlements are largely disappeared, in some places petroglyphs have been preserved.
1770 explored James Cook on his first South Seas travel the area. On January 26, 1788 British ships of the First Fleet arrived with about 1,000 men and women, including about three-quarters of convicts, under the command of Arthur Phillip at Port Jackson. They set up at the port, the first white settlement of Australia. The new settlement was named Sydney, in honor of the then British Home Secretary Lord Sydney. 2006 lived in the city of almost four million people in about 450 suburbs.
Economy and infrastructure
The construction of the first port facilities was carried out at the instigation of Lachlan Macquarie (1762-1824), governor of the British colony of New South Wales. Today the port has modern facilities for container ships. The largest part of the Australian trade was phased in in the 80's Port Jackson. Meat, wheat and wool were the main export products. After a long phase of container ship traffic now invests in Botany Bay. The ferry in the harbor is operated by Sydney Ferries, a State-owned company of the Government of New South Wales.