Pyramid of Khafre
Pharaoh Khafre (also Chaefre ), who was buried here, was the half-brother of his predecessor Radjedef ( alternative reading Djedefre ) and son of Pharaoh Cheops ( Khufu also ), who was also buried in Giza. On the Eastern Cemetery at Giza you will find a large Doppelmastaba (No. G7130 -40), which is attributed to the king's son Chaefchufu by Stadelmann. This Chaefchufu changed after the death of his half-brothers and Kawab Djedefre and his seizure of power in the name Chaefre ( He appears as Re ').
- Height: 143.87 m (275 King Sellen ); 143.87 / 275 = 0.523 m per yard
- Page Length: 215.29 m (410 King Sellen ); 215.29 / 410 = 0.525
The Pyramid of Chephren is located southwest of those of his father and so in the middle of the three pyramids of Giza on a terrace. The levels of the northwest corner of the base is about 10 m excavated in the rock, the opposite southeast corner was a massive high walled, to compensate for the slight incline of the terrace. The quarry for building materials is on the spot. The horizontally laid stone layers are roughly trimmed, the joints very broad, and often lack the mortar; the pyramid core is technically performed significantly worse than the Great Pyramid of Cheops.
The cladding of the two lower layers consisted of granite, the more limestone cladding.
At the top of the Pyramid of Chephren remains of paneling are still present, the Pyramidion no longer exists.
Because of the progressive erosion of the lining obtained by Italian skilled limestone was examined. On this occasion, strong shifts of the corner edges were registered and calculated by computer simulation, earthquake as the cause.
As early as the 19th Dynasty Ramesses II has begun with the stone robbery. He used the limestone cladding for the construction of a temple in Heliopolis ( rock inscriptions of the head of temple work Maj ).
Between the years 1356 and 1362 were removed more parts of the cladding for the construction of the Hassan Mosque in Cairo.
The pyramid has two Descending access in the North. Both of which are one above the other, the lower outside of the building starts to 30 m on the ground level, the upper 11.5 m above the base surface. The lower passage leads into a horizontal tunnel, from which a secondary chamber branches ( 10.41 × 3.12 m, 2.61 m high). It is believed that this chamber had the same function as the so-called Queen's Chamber of the Great Pyramid of Cheops. Behind the horizontal tunnel passage rises again and hits just below ground level to the next from the top second access. The now common response is now horizontally to the grave chamber in the center of the building.
The grave chamber measures 14.15 × 5 m and has a height of 6.83 m. The ceiling consists of powerful, inclined limestone beams, the walls are already out of the solid rock. Up to Belzoni Graffiti the chamber is blank and contains only the granite sarcophagus, which is half buried in the ground. The sliding lid was broken in the chamber, discovered bones were from bulls. A small pit in the floor probably contained the canopic jars.
It is believed that the pyramid was first robbed the First Intermediate Period. The historian Ibn Abd as- Salam noted a further opening of the pyramid in 774 according to the Islamic calendar ( = 1372 AD), but apparently this was closed again.
On 2 March 1818, the grave chamber of Belzoni was rediscovered. Opposite the magnificent chamber system of Cheops but affects the previously discovered structure of Khafre rather simple.
The pyramid District
The pyramid was surrounded by a massive perimeter wall that formed a well- about 10 m wide paved courtyard. Further north, west and south localized to Wall radicals which probably formed the boundary of the whole complex. On the south side, outside the enclosure, are the remains of a satellite pyramid (No. G2a ). It is debatable whether this is a cult pyramid or the grave of a wife of Khafre in this pyramid.
As usual since Sneferu, the Pyramid of Chephren has the tripartition valley temple, causeway and mortuary temple. The mortuary temple is east in front of the pyramid. The king has here introduced for the first time a new model that have all the following mortuary temple:
- An entrance hall,
- An open colonnaded courtyard,
- Five niches for statues of kings ( statue chapels )
- Five chambers as magazines,
- The Holy of Holies with false door and / or stelae pair.
The temple was built of local limestone, lined inside with granite and fitted with colored decorations in relief. The pillars of the court were also made of granite. Fragments prove that the temple was provided with numerous statues of the king, some of which 3.75 m supposed to have been high.
The 495 m long causeway between valley and mortuary temple is preserved only in remains. He probably consisted of a covered corridor of limestone, exterior clad with granite and decorated inside with reliefs. The causeway is not exactly running on the east- west axis, but is shifted slightly so as not to conflict with the Sphinx. Some Egyptologists see it proof that the Sphinx was created before the reign of Khafre.
The Valley Temple of the Pyramid of Chephren is located directly next to the Sphinx Temple at once an ancient quay of the Pyramid district. The structural condition is still excellent. It was built of large limestone blocks that were clad with polished granite slabs.
Access was from the quay been over two doors that were previously closed with giant cedar wood doors. Both entrances lead to a cross- hall, of which performs a central passage in a large, T-shaped pillared hall. The 16 pillars made of granite monoliths and supported the roof. The illumination was made through narrow slots in the upper part of the walls. The floor was made of white alabaster. In this hall, 23 or 24 royal statues were erected at the sides. One of these statues is made of diorite and was found in very good condition by Auguste Mariette and is now on display in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The remaining statues were more or less destroyed. From them is the head of a statue in the Roemer and Pelizaeus Museum in Hildesheim.
The causeway to the mortuary temple also begins in the pillared hall.