Regime [ ʀeʒi ː m] (plural: the regime [ ʀeʒi ː mə ] or the regime [ ʀeʒi ː ms] régime of French, form of government ',' state form ', latin regimen [n ], steering ', ' line ', ' government ', to Latin regere, straighten ',' steer ',' rule ') is in political science and in various other scientific disciplines a term for control and / or classification systems, which typically norms, decision-making procedures and principles include and the way the actors involved with each other and with certain characterize tasks. The term can be used interchangeably with management and specifically used in the narrower sense as a synonym for government, if political leadership and the organizing principles of a political system are meant.
In common parlance, is, regime ' with pejorative connotation, especially for not democratically legitimized and controlled forms of domination, such as dictatorships or coup governments use.
In the international relations of the regime concept plays an important role. Robert O. Keohane, developed in the late 1970s as a development of interdependence theory, a so-called "regime theory ". So-called international regimes are binding under international law, contractually established multinational mechanisms in international politics, which on contractual rules (ie norms and principles ) are based, and define decision procedures by which work together the contractors based on these rules internationally. International regimes can therefore be regarded as a contractual rules. They are therefore not independent actors such as international organizations.
Examples include exchange rate regimes, arms control regime, or even human rights regime.
In comparative politics regime be understood as an expression of political rule form. The regime type or the type of regime provides information on the fundamental character of the form of government, called therefore " generally a way of life, order and form of government, ie an institutionalized set of principles, norms and rules, fundamentally the way of dealing with the actors in a given context of action regulates ". This concept of regime this case contains no devaluation, but is a neutral term used for all forms of government, even democratic. However, de facto regimes, whose exercise of power can not be derived from any legal title and not found as states or governments recognition but effective rule violence have obtained and in which, therefore, actual power is exercised, are deferred: Your dominion, and thus the they effectively controlled territory is de jure foreign territory. Regime can therefore be defined as
"... The formal and informal organization of political power center on the one hand and which in each case highly contoured relationship to society as a whole on the other. A regime defines the approaches to the political domination as well as the power relations between the ruling elites and the ratio of those in power to its subjects. Both power relations [ ... ] must be institutionalized to some degree. This means they must be accepted, practiced and in particular normalize the behavior of those in power. "
Often with totalitarianism, authoritarianism and democracy three basic pure types of regimes or regimes differed, these pure types can again be divided.
From, regime ' as a general term for specific occurrences of forms of government, the system of government and the individual government is distinguished. The system of government is in comparative politics only a specific part of the whole regime. For example, the system of government " parliamentary " or organized " government Presidential ", but both belong to the type of democratic regimes, individual cases of a particular type of government can vary greatly by conventions, process routes and different institutions. As a government, however, a concrete institution is referred to in the government system or its human aspect. The regime concept covers political structures, but not certain members of government or heads of state, as implied in ordinary language phrases such as " the Assad regime."
In the common linguistic use of the term refers to regime ' dictatorial or not democratically legitimized form of the exercise of power without a sharp demarcation from the clear institutionalized government with a prime minister at the head. It is a totum pro parte against the original meaning ( any kind of specific rule exercise at all or any realized state and form of government ). The term has gone through a negative change of meaning in German and, especially in the everyday or common language, but partly also in the professional world often has a negative connotation ( as in the English transition research, the term "regime " clearly has a neutral meaning, where " different political types of rule "by which well -democratic regimes fall, called ).
Be referred to dissidents or insurgents as dissidents or opponents of the regime, so gives you an explicit legitimation and lifts it so explicitly by rioters, troublemakers or even terrorists from. In common usage, the distinction to individual governments is blurred. Thus the term, regime ' for certain historical events has naturalized, for example,
- Ancien Régime,
- Nazi regime,
- Franco regime,
- Vichy regime.