Under Reclamation refers to the restoration of semi-natural habitats for plants and animals on so-called devastated areas, such as those left by mining, for example. Even old landfill areas, roads or build area can be revegetated. It is important, especially the unsealing of the soil, ie the reversal of surface sealing. The main difficulties lie in the fact that the soils are highly compacted to rekultivierenden usually and often contaminated with chemicals, heavy metals or oil.
The renaturation however, is based on soil surfaces and rivers, and in contrast to the reclamation always a natural recovery goal.
Relation to landscape protection
Especially through the mountain and road natural and cultural areas are destroyed. Mining companies are required to reclaim and restore, while other areas may be renatured in road construction in exchange for the land ( in Germany ).
Often, however, is not just the mining use with a decline of ecological diversity associated, but also the subsequent recultivation or renaturation, since, inter alia, in quarries or opencast mining holes over years habitats may have formed, which are not inferior to those prior to the usage in terms of species or even surpass. Therefore, the mere restoration of mountain planning areas is often too restrictive, especially as often required in the operation of lowering the water table changed much larger landscape and cultural areas sustainable.
Recultivated tailings and waste dumps can not be developed or used for agricultural purposes mostly, here trees, bushes or grass surfaces are created that have a field of activity of landscape architecture and forestry and can be used, inter alia, the recovery. This also applies to the lignite mining areas and their large opencast mine holes that can not be filled.
The reclamation is a statutory restoration of semi-natural habitats for plants and other living things. It usually takes decades. Through coverage of almost two -meter thick layers of soil on leveled surfaces you win farmland. Through reforestation thus arise mixed forests on the slopes. For the rest of holes created lakes in the size 25-4800 hectares, which serve as habitats for rare animal and plant species.