Revised Romanization of Korean

The Revised Romanization of Korean is since 2000, the official romanization for the Korean language in South Korea. In this role she took over from a transcription, based on the McCune - Reischauer and from 1984 was valid. Developed the transcription of the National Academy of the Korean Language, published by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism.

  • 2.2.1 Rules to differing spellings
  • 2.2.2 Table to differing spellings

Comparison with McCune - Reischauer

The most obvious difference is the omission of diacritical characters except the hyphen, very sparingly used. In McCune - Reischauer the Breve were used to distinguish the letters ㅗ and ㅓ and ㅜ ㅡ and. These are often omitted when typing on the PC for convenience, making the often critical difference was accounted for. ( For example, there is on the subway line 2 Seoul both a stop, which needs to be rewritten with McCune - Reischauer Sinch'on as well as one that Sinch'ŏn. ) The same applies for the aspirated sounds ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅊ ㅍ and, by means of a prime (k ', t', CH ', p') of the non -aspirated ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅈ ㅂ and ( k, t, CH, P or g, D, J, b ) were distinguished. These also show the problem is that the apostrophe from the non- expert reader can easily be construed as hyphenation character ( for example, consists of the stops name Sinch'on from the syllables Sin and ch'on ), especially since it used to distinguish ㄱ ㄴ and ㅇ ㅇ exactly this can be.

In addition, at McCune - Reischauer characters often depending on whether they were at the word beginning or in the middle of a word, different rewritten to get the actual pronunciation closer. For example, the city 대구 was written with McCune - Reischauer Taegu. The largest train station in the city, however, was written 동대구 Tong- Daegu.

In the Revised Romanization of the distinction between ㅗ and ㅓ or ㅜ ㅡ and is implemented using a prefix e. This is also confusing for the untrained reader, such as the capital Seoul is pronounced by German readers often Se -ul (in fact, it is practically like the English soul [ soul ] pronounced). A character is always the same rewritten, apart from the distinction as the initial sound or final position of a syllable. Only if a significant volume displacement is present, the same is different from Korean characters rewritten, such as in 한라산 that is written instead Hanlasan Hallasan. The aspirated sounds ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅊ and ㅍ be rewritten only by k, t, ch and p, while the non -aspirated sounds ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ ㅈ and with g, d, j, and b ) can be rewritten. Especially western readers criticize but that Koreans most of these words would rather speak with the characters used in McCune - Reischauer, so rather Taegu Daegu instead. For Koreans, this has a rather low relevance, the pronunciation ㄷ and ㅌ different in other characteristics as d and t.

Transcription scheme


In the transcription, in part, simple vowels are represented with more than one letter.

Simple vowels



  • ㅢ is transcribed as ui, even if it is as pronounced i.
  • Long and short vowels are not distinguished in the transcription, as in Han geul.


The Revised Romanization based as the McCune -Reischauer transcription on the Korean standard pronunciation. It is not often derive directly from the typeface. This mainly affects the transcription of the consonants.

Rules to different spellings

  • The letters ㄱ, ㄷ ㅂ and be as g, d and b, respectively transcribed when they stand before a vowel; they are transcribed as k, t and p, when another consonant follows or if they stand at the end of the word. Examples:
  • Some consonants are transcribed in deviation from the basic scheme according to their actual debate at the end of a syllable. Examples:
  • The letter ㄹ is transcribed as r when followed by a vowel; when a consonant follows or if he is at the end of a word, it is transcribed as l. The letters ㄹ ㄹ is transcribed as ll. Examples:
  • Consonant assimilations are shown in the legend, after the debate, not the typeface in Han geul. Examples:
  • Pronunciation of the so-called " epenthetic ㄴ ㄹ and " are reproduced in the transcription. Examples:
  • If the letters ㄷ or ㅌ face i, they are transcribed according to the pronunciation as j or ch. Examples:
  • If the letter ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ ㅈ or the letter ㅎ preceded or followed, they are as k, t, p and transcribed ch and h falls out. Examples:
  • The h does not fall out in nouns where ㅎ ㄱ is claimed, ㄷ ㅂ or. Examples:
  • For composite morphemes or the tense glottalized pronunciation of consonants is not reproduced in the transcription, but transcribed by the Han geul notation. Examples:

Table to different spellings

This table lists the spellings of consonant assimilations are shown in simplified form. The transcription results from the consonant at the end of a syllable plus consonant at the beginning of the following syllable.


To specify the syllable boundaries of the Han geul - spellings, a hyphen can be used. Examples:


Proper names are capitalized. Examples:

Personal names

Korean names are written with a space between surname and first name. Basically, the two syllables of a first name should not be separated by a hyphen, but it can be a hyphen be used. Examples ( in CJK language area of ​​the family name is written first ):

More often to be found spellings: Song Na -Ri, Song Na Ri Na ri rarely, song, Song Nari.


  • Assimilation between consonants is not reproduced in the transcription of personal names:
  • The transcription of surnames is still to be determined separately and may differ from the scheme.

Place names

The names of administrative units are transcribed as follows: do 도, 시 si, 군 gun, 구 gu, 읍 eup, myeon 면, ri 리, 동 dong and 가 ga. They are connected with a hyphen in the names. Assimilation of consonant before or after the hyphen is not included in the transcription. Examples:

The designations of geographical formations and cultural monuments, etc. can be written together without a hyphen. Examples:

Conventional spellings

Proper names as personal names and company names may be written as before the introduction of the Revised Romanization.


Basically, it is not possible to infer from the Revised Romanization clearly on the spelling in Han geul. Where desired, such as in scientific articles, a modified transcription method is used is transliterated in the letter for letter as Han geul notation, without regard to the debate. Examples:

McCune - Reischauer differences

ㅓ and ㅡ be written with two vowel letters: eo and eu. In McCune - Reischauer they are written with the o and u. These characters do not belong to the default character set and can be easily confused because of their similarities. However, the new inscription is misleading, especially for German, because eu is not such as pronounced as in German you, but is a single sound which is spoken flies like an open ö as in open. Also eo is a single sound, and is pronounced as the o pronounced in open.

ㅝ is written as where and ㅢ is written as ui.

Aspirated consonants ( ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, ㅊ ) have no apostrophe ( k, t, p, and ch) as in McCune - Reischauer. Your non -aspirated counterparts ( ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ ㅈ ) are written as voiced English sounds (g, d, b and j). At the end of a word but they are written as k, t, and p when they are pronounced. Ceased is thus compared to McCune - Reischauer the volume change of consonants in word-initial: Instead of " Pusan ​​" to write now " Busan" and " Kimch'i " becomes " Gimchi ".

ㅅ is always written as s or t, never as sh.

ㄹ is r before a vowel, l before a consonant or at the end of a word. Double ㄹ is always ll

The dash can be used to delimit syllables, eg jeong - eum instead jeon - geum.

The syllables personal name may be separated by a dash.

The romanization of personal names, names of existing companies and the like will not be touched.