A single ship is a ship which is constructed on inland waterways and inland waterways for the ride. Unlike a ship less stringent demands on stability in a seaway, to navigation tools and rescue equipment shall be submitted to the design. For measures such as height-adjustable helm or retractable mast may be required to account for limited headroom under bridges.
A rough classification of inland vessels arising from their use;
- Cargo Ship
- Sport boat.
Classification of cargo ships to CEMT for the waterway classes:
- Class I: Spits or péniche or large Finow: 38.5 × 5.05 × 2.2 m, loading capacity: 300-400 tons, 24-36 TEU
- Kempenaar: 50.0 × 6.60 × 2.5 m, loading capacity: 400-600 tons, 24-48 TEU
- New Kempenaar: 55.0 × 7:20 × 2.5 m, loading capacity: 700-800 tons
- Canal -du-Nord - ship: 60.0 × 5.75 × 3.2 m, loading capacity: 800 tons
- Gustav Koenigs- ship ( developed from the Dortmund -Ems canal barge ): 67.0 × 8.20 × 2.5 m, loading capacity: 600-1,000 tons; later extended to 80.0 m: loading capacity: 1,200 tons, 81-120 TEU (named after Gustav Koenigs )
- Karl- front table - Ship: 57.0 × 7.04 × 2.30, Loading capacity: 605 tons (named after Karl Vortisch )
- Oscar Teubert ship: 53.0 × 6.29 × 3.50, load capacity: 562 tons (named after Oskar Teubert )
- Johann Welker ship (developed from the Rhine- Herne Canal Kahn ): 80.0 × 9.50 × 2.50, load capacity: 1289 tons; later extended up to 110 m (named after Johann Wilhelm Welker )
- Theodor Beyer- ship ( developed from Peniche ): 38.50 × 5.05 × 2.30, Loading capacity: 274 tons (named after Theodor Beyer )
- Europe ship ( RHK ): 85.0 × 9.50 × 2.5 m, loading capacity: 1,350 tons
- Large Rhine: 110.0 × 11.4 × 3.5 m, loading capacity: 2,800 tons, 200 TEU
- Thrust or pushing units to 185 x 11.4 m, loading capacity up to 6000 tons
- Pushing or pushing units from 95.0 to 110 m long and 22.8 m wide, load capacity up to 6000 tons
- Jowi Class: 135.0 × 17.0 × 3.50 m, loading capacity: 5,300 tons, up to 500 TEU
The tonnage values are average values . The ship classes include respectively corresponding classes of inland waterways.
- Barges up to a capacity of 6,000 tons
- Container ships up to 500 TEU
- Front Runner, the apartment and the wheelhouse are in the bow area.
- Ro-Ro ships
- Motor tankers up to a capacity of 10,000 tons
- Gas tankers
- Tankers for the transport of liquid foodstuffs such as cooking oil or wine.
- Auto transport barges with up to 600 cars carrying capacity
- Floating highway, catamarans for transporting semi -trailers on the Danube
- Barges ( without motor) very rare today
- Barges (also push barge ) as cargo lighter and tank barges up to 2,800 tonnes deadweight
- Push boats ( slipcase ), which on the Rhine up to six barges and eg push on the Mississippi up to 40 Light
- Tug, Tug Boat, preload boats, very rare today
- Coupling Association, compilations of a motor ship with up to three barges, total capacity up to 10,000 tons
- Rhine -sea vessels and coasters ( motor coasters ) that are used both at sea and on certain inland waterways (for example during the journey from London to Duisburg)
- Specialized vessels for the transport of sugar, flour or cement in tanks
- Vessels with automatic means for loading and unloading of pallets
- Drinking water tankers to supply other ships
- Passenger vessels for day trips
- Cabin boats for cruises
There are also many types of work vessels such as dredgers, floating cranes, barges, diving vessels, icebreakers, boats by the river police, fire boats, laboratory vessels, buoy tender of the Waterways and Shipping Offices, floating churches, floating restaurants, passenger and car ferries, Bilgenentöler and more.
- The different tonnage data depend on the waterway that has to travel across the barge from the loading to the port of discharge and opposite. Structurally, the vehicles are often adapted to the conditions of the waterway, such as existing water depths, lengths and widths lock, bridge clearance and the like. It follows that not all inland vessels can be used anywhere in the Federal Republic and in Europe.
- Many ships are provided with an adjustable height control in the house so she can pass under bridges or low, depending on the charge level ( container ships) provide a better overview. The radar antennas are often much better because of a radar image in the bow area.
Facts and Figures
Cargo ships and passenger ships, most are now powered by diesel engines. Their performance starts at about 200 kW (300 hp ) and ends (currently 2007) at about 3000-4500 kW ( 4,000 to 6,000 hp). Depending on the ship type and drive range of up to three machines are used. The maximum overall length (important for locks and flow curves ) of the barges is currently (2007) 135 meters at a maximum of 21.80 meters in width, the mean value is 85 m × 9.50 m.
Push boats with 6 barges can in the Association a measure of about 269 m × 22.80 m reach .. so you have a load capacity of up to 16,000 t.
The largest inland tanker in the world is the 2011 which entered service in Vorstenbosch with a loading capacity of 13,889 m³. Previously, he was the Dutch tanker Vlissingen with dimensions m × 134.61 21.80 meters and a loading capacity of 9,297 tonnes at 4,40 m Draft the largest inland waterway. It is used for bunkering of ships in the port of Rotterdam. The currently largest passenger ship on the Rhine is the energy of the Rhine Cologne - Düsseldorf with a length of 90.3 m and 19.3 m wide.
The container ships Jowi class are among the largest on the Rhine. You are 135 m long, 17 m wide and carrying 4 to 5 layers Container.Damit reach them a load capacity up to 5,500 tons and a capacity of 500 TEU. North German shipyards have designed an experimental ship type Futura Carrier. Meanwhile, four ships to ride. A special design feature of these ships is an air cushion under the hull through which reduces friction and about 35 % of energy to be saved. The hull is manufactured in modular construction. It has a drive unit which can be exchanged completely in a short time at all four corners. It is planned to build tankers, bulk carriers and container ships. Baptism of the Futura Carrier RMS Kiel was in Wilhelmshaven on 17 January 2007. In June 2007, the Futura Tanker Till Deymann was put into service.
New buildings from 2006 to 2010
From 2006 to 2010 about 800 new ships were put into operation in the Western European inland waterways. About 80 percent of them flying the Dutch flag. The largest share of form tankers and dry cargo ships. Most ships are supplied as hull and come to 40 per cent from China, while 40 percent came from Poland, Czech Republic, Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria and Ukraine. The rest was built in the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium. The transportation from China is carried out with great Seeleichtern who deliver up to 15 hulls to Rotterdam. The trip takes about three months. Ships from the Danube countries, Ukraine and Turkey to be towed across the Danube, the Main-Danube Canal and the Rhine to the mostly Dutch expansion yards in Hardinxveld- Giessendam, Grave, Meppel, Lobith and Werkendam.
During the above period 293 cargo ships of various sizes were brought into service. 14 vessels with a length of 86m and widths from 9.50 to 11.45 m. The load capacity ranges from 1850 up to 2280 tons, the container capacity is between 90-144 TEU.
Of the 131 110 -meter ships had 122, the dimensions of 110 × 11.45 m at an average depth of 3.61 m and a capacity of 3220 tons (208 TEU in four layers ). Two ships, the Belgian container ships Deseo and Tripoli are 17.20 meters wide. The rest were vessels with a width of 10.00 to 11.40 m and 2400-3000 tonnes deadweight.
In the 135 -meter vessels (114 ) were 45 vessels with a width from 14.20 to 17.35 m. The loading capacity is up to 6700 tons, or about 500 TEU in five positions.
The 36 new link organizations an average size of 180.00 × 11.45 m at 5300 tonnes deadweight (350 TEU in four layers ). The largest coupling Association, the Ursa Montana is 194.00 meters long and 17.28 meters wide, the loading capacity is 10,388 tons (712 TEU in five positions ).
290 new tankers were put into service, of which 221 for the haul, 61 bunker vessels for bunkering of ships, and two cement and six gas tankers. The size of the tanker varies between 86.00 × 9.50 m (1640 tons ) and 135 × 17.50 m ( 7835 tons ):
- 66 ships per 86.0 meters
- 131 vessels each 110 meters ( 3000-4170 tons )
- 16 ships of 125 meters ( 3800 tons )
- 51 ships per 135 meters and 11.45 to 17.50 m Beam ( 4190-7835 tons )
The largest built during this period are the bunker tanker ships Vlissingen and jade. Both are 135 m long and have a width of 20,80 / 20,00 m a load capacity of 9297/9007 tons.
There 33 new cabin passenger ships were built. The largest part comes completely from Dutch and German shipyards, only a few hulls were built in Serbia. The ships have a size of 110, 00 and 135 meters in length. The 110 m vessels can carry 143 passengers, on average, with 135 meters length 200 passengers. The crew size depends on size between 40 and 50 people. Most ships are registered in Germany, Switzerland and Malta.
In addition to the ships listed above several boat tours, day trip vessels, barges, work boats, supply vessels and pushers were built.
The river boat is the best transport compared to road and rail. For the transport of 10,000 tons of ore from Rotterdam to Duisburg a four - barge train consumes around 12,000 liters of fuel. If you were to transport the same amount of cargo by truck, you would have to use 370 trucks and would consume approximately 30,000 gallons of fuel. Then there is the staffing needs of eight men on the barge train, or 370 drivers for the trucks. If we add now to the emissions that cause 370 engines each 400 hp compared with two engines each with 2300 hp, so the barge is clearly the better solution. However, it is like on the road course at the inland navigation traffic jams caused mainly by low water, flood or ice conditions. If locks, canal or river sections are closed due to repair work on the road, these closures will be announced early in most cases, so that the shipping can adjust. The primary energy demand is at an inland 1.3 liters, 1.7 liters on the railroad and the truck 4.1 liters per 100 tonne-kilometers.
Since 1 January 2003, apply to all marine diesel engines exhaust emission limits. These are again adjusted in 2007 and 2008.
For new engines:
- NOx = 10 g / kWh
- CO = 0.6 g / kWh
- CH = 10.4 g / kWh
- Soot = 0.05 g / kWh
For old engines:
- NOx = 18 g / kWh
- CO = 0.8 g / kWh
- CH = 0.8 g / kWh
- Soot = 0.4 g / kWh