Low- Lying Pearlwort ( Sagina procumbens )
The low- lying Pearlwort ( Sagina procumbens ), also called Lying gag, a species of the Caryophyllaceae family is ( Caryophyllaceae ). The very small plant is rather similar to a moss as a flowering plant for laymen. It forms turf -like cushion and is relatively insensitive to mechanical stress. Therefore, it can happen for example in pavement cracks up in the inner cities.
- 5.1 Notes and references
- 5.2 Further Reading
- 5.3 External links
The low- lying Pearlwort is a very unassuming evergreen, perennial, herbaceous plant. It grows prostrate to ascending, forming a taproot and reaches heights of growth between two and five centimeters. At appropriate places, it forms low rasige stocks.
First Young plants form a basal rosette of leaves, grow out of soon branched, leafy and flower-bearing shoots. The prostrate, ascending at the end, hairless stems are up to 20 centimeters long. The constant against stem leaves are linear, 5-15 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. You have a short spike tip and are sometimes slightly fleshy.
Flowers and Fruit
The flowers are cruciform in general, but can occur on the same plant and flowers with five sepals and petals. The flower diameter including the sepals is about five millimeters. Sit per stalk two or more flowers on long flower stems, each spring from the leaf axils. The petioles tend after bloom down, but before the fruit ripens they stand up again. The white petals are always smaller than the sepals and fall off early or often absent. The sepals are up to 2.5 mm long and remain until the fruit ripening are. They are broadly elliptical to roundish, have a membranous white border and are rounded at the front. The flower has usually four, in exceptional cases up to eight stamens. The flowering period extends from May to September. The egg-shaped capsule fruit dominates the sepals something. It opens with four or five blunt flaps. The matt - brown triangular seeds are about 0.3 millimeters long.
The chromosome number is n = 11
The low- lying Pearlwort is originally from Europe, western Asia and the temperate zones of North Africa, where it is found at altitudes of about 700 m. Meanwhile, there has been abducted in large parts of the world and there are deposits in North America, Central America, South America, Asia and even in Antarctica.
Frequent references are fields, particularly with compacted soil, the banks, paths and paving joints. It prefers sandy loam soils low in calcium, and here's an indicator plant for alternating wet and nitrogen-rich soils. Since it may well withstand mechanical stresses, it is found in step societies. It is ( argenteum Bryum ) together with the silver moss a characteristic species of Pearlwort Kick Society ( Bryo - Saginetum procumbentis / Polygono - Poetea ). This is the typical plant community paved spaces and paths of the cities. Easy salinated soils, with a chloride content of less than 0.3 %, the low- lying Pearlwort can also endure. It usually occurs in groups.
The low- lying mast herb is a creeping, two-year or a few years perennial herbaceous, green all year Chamaephyt.
The flowers are " nectar leading disk flowers "; and although they are very small, they still produce nectar by glands at the base of the stamens, so that an insect pollination takes place mainly by bees and small flies. However, the hermaphrodite flowers can self-pollinate. During inclement weather, the flowers remain closed, ie kleistogam. The flowering period extends from May to September.
The Fruchtsiel is hooked curved downwards after flowering, but maturity is upright again. The fruit capsules open by 4 or 5 doors. The very small seeds are perforated by regular Papillenreihen; their propagation takes place as water Misty by step propagation and as Regenschwemmlinge. Fruit ripening from June to September.
Asexual reproduction occurs by stolons.
Subspecies and systematics
The low- lying Pearlwort bears the name Sagina procumbens L. Botanical valid to be performed at the moment the following sub- types:
- Low- Lying Coastal Pearlwort ( Sagina procumbens var litoralis Rchb. ) Referred to as Salt Pearlwort. The mold occurs on saline soil and their leaves are distinctly fleshy.
- Alpine Low Lying Pearlwort ( Sagina procumbens var bryoides ( Froel. ) with the synonyms Sagina bryoides Froel. Sagina procumbens and subsp. Bryoides. This subspecies of the leaf margin is ciliated and short pedicels, calyx and stems are covered with glandular hairs.
- Ordinary Low Lying Pearlwort ( Sagina procumbens var procumbens ) with the Sagina procumbens synonym subsp. procumbens. This is the most common form in Europe.
Sources and further information
The article is mainly based on the following documents:
- Eckhart J. Jäger, Klaus Werner ( eds.): Excursion Flora of Germany. Founded by Werner Roth painter. 10, revised edition. Volume 4: Vascular Plants: Critical band, Elsevier, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Munich / Heidelberg 2005, ISBN 3-8274-1496-2.
- Franz Fukarek, Heinz executioner: Flora of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Ferns and flowering plants. Hawthorn, Jena 2006, ISBN 3-936055-07-6.
- Ruprecht Duell, Herfried Kutzelnigg: Pocket Dictionary of Plants in Germany and neighboring countries. The most common central European species in the portrait. 7, corr. and ext. Edition. Quelle & Meyer, Wiebelsheim 2011, ISBN 978-3-494-01424-1.