A sanction (French sanction; neulateinisch from sanctio, healing, recognition, approval, endorsement, criminal threat ' to Latin sancire, holy, set by consecration inviolable, legally affirm, under penalty ban ') is granting the force of law. As a rule is legally meant the threat of punishment by law ( in the plural), which is designed to prevent concrete actions and thus enforce standards.
In sociology, forms of organization of social processes are referred to it, see Social sanction.
Here we divided the sanctions, for example, in six degrees of severity:
You can generally be positive or negative: a positive sanction is a - not necessarily physical - "reward"; a negative sentence, a "punishment".
In law, the word of sanction means as much as punishment for a crime or a misdemeanor. In law, generally consist of sanctions provided for by the laws of action for misconduct. Sanctions also serve the prevention of crime here.
In criminal law sanctions are in accordance with the purpose of punishment theories to establish the disturbed by the disapproved behavior legal peace. In addition to potential offenders in this way be held by means of deterrence own delinquency.
In private law, especially penalties serve this purpose.
In social law sanctions in the form of benefit reductions exist (eg blocking time in the unemployment benefit, unemployment benefit sanctions in 2).
In international law, for example -economic pressure to a particular country are using sanctions applied in order to force him to change their behavior; see economic sanctions.