A SASM / GNC transcription (English SASM / GNC romanization, also SASM / GNC / SRC) is a transcription or transliteration convention for each one a non-Roman writing system used language in the Latin alphabet from a compilation that in the People's Republic of China was introduced by the following institutions:
- The former State Administration of Land Surveying and Cartography (English SASM = State Administration of Surveying and Mapping ), Chinese国家 测绘 总局, after 1982 National Bureau of Land Surveying and Cartography (国家 测绘 局) and 2011 renamed the National Administration for Land Surveying, Cartography and Geoinformation (国家 测绘 地理 信息 局)
- The Committee on Geographical Names (English GNC = Geographical Names Committee), Chinese中国 地名 委员会
- The früherenen font Reform Committee ( engl. SRC = Script Reform Committee of the People 's Republic of China), Chinese:中国 文字 改革 委员会, 1985 renamed State Language Commission and National Languages and Schrifzeichen Work Committee (国家 语言 文字 工作 委员会)
This compilation contains, among other transcriptions for Chinese ( officially known as Hanyu Pinyin Pinyin or short ), Mongolian, Tibetan and Uighur. In this context, there is also the 1976, in force regulating the phonetic transcription of place names of the minority national languages in Hanyu Pinyin Letters ( engl. Regulation of Phonetic Transcription in Hanyu Pinyin Letters of Place Names in Minority Nationality Languages, Chinese少数民族 语 地名 汉语 拼音 字母 音译 转 写法) and regulations for the posting of personal names with Hanyu Pinyin letters.
Diesee transcription systems are used in the PRC since 1978 on the spelling of personal names and geographical names in foreign language texts.
All Schemes except Pinyin have a strict shape and a wide shape, the width of the form is generally used. In the case of the tone marks Pinyin be omitted in practice.
- 4.1 scheme
- 5.1 Pinyin Pinyin based or influenced
- 5.2 Nicht-SASM/GNC/SRC-Transkriptionen used in China
- 5.3 people and place names of languages without SASM / GNC / SRC transcription
Hanyu Pinyin is used for romanization of the Chinese, the tone marks are omitted in the general shape and set in the strict form.
Although the Mongolian script is listed in the standard, it is still always a phonetic transcription based on the Qahar dialect. Thus, for example, ᠤ ᠯ ᠠ ᠭ ᠠ ᠨ ᠬ ᠠ ᠳ ᠠ ᠬ ᠣ ᠲ ᠠ not transcribed as Ûlaganhada hota but rather Ulaanhad hôt ( strict) or Ulanhad hot ( wide).
Although the strict transcription is recommended in the standard to be used when the transcription of place names and to use the broad general transcription, strict transcription is hardly used in practice, for example, Hohhot Hohhot place actually. In some cases, the SASM / GNC / SRC transcription of Mongolian is even associated with the Hanyu pinyin, for example, Huhhot or Huhehot.
* Own reconstruction with the help of the Mongolian alphabet (please check ).
Characters in red in the rigorous transcription of the SASM / GNC / SRC and the Cyrillic - Mongolian script are not mutually isomorphic. This can be dialectal differences ( Chakhar and Khalkha ) or different interpretation of the concept phonetically / phonemic. Characters in green in the rigorous transcription of the SASM / GNC / SRC and the traditional Mongolian are not mutually equivalent.
The SASM / GNC / SRC- transliteration system for Uyghur language based (commonly known as Yengi Yezi ⱪ or Uyghur Pinyin Yëziqi ) on the New Scriptures, because at that time the New Uighur writing was the official spelling of the Uighur in China.
- Uey - Uyghur Arabic script ( Uyghur Ereb Yëziqi )
- ULY - Uyghur Latin script ( Uyghur Latin Yëziqi )
- Uyy - New script Uyghur ( Uyghur Yengi Yëziqi )
- Broad - SASM / GNC / SRC broad
- Strict - SASM / GNC / SRC strict
Nicht-SASM/GNC/SRC-Transkriptionen and orthographies in China
Pinyin Pinyin based or influenced
Romanisierungen as Bbánlám pìngyīm and Guangdong Romanization, as orthographies such as the Zhuang alphabet (1982) and Yengi Yezi ⱪ for Uyghur ( Uighur Pinyin Yëziqi ) are not SASM / GNC / SRC transcriptions.
Nicht-SASM/GNC/SRC-Transkriptionen used in China
Nicht-SASM/GNC/SRC-Transliterationen may be used in China for teaching purposes and to promote this. For example, use libraries in China, the Wylie transliteration and scientific transcription to transcribe Tibetan and Mongolian book title or the library catalog.
Nicht-SASM/GNC/SRC-Transkriptionen (eg Thdl ), however, are by no means encouraged ( English: rather not promoted ).
Personal and place names of languages without SASM / GNC / SRC transcription
For personal and place names of languages without SASM / GNC / SRC transcription, the Pinyin romanization of their transcription is used in Chinese characters. For example, Xishuangbanna is not transcribed with Sipsongpanna or Sibsongbanna.
The Oirat language is transcribed from the corresponding Qahar dialect, as it is officially regarded by the Government of the People's Republic of China as the Mongolian dialect.