Transcription (from the Latin trans, across ' and scribere, write ') is understood in the strict sense, a transliteration (ie the transfer of linguistic expressions from one writing system to another ), which is based on the pronunciation, one with the help of a phonetically defined phonetics or other base alphabet as phonetic replacement. The non-native speakers this should allow a reasonably correct pronunciation of the word. In a broader sense transcription is a synonym for transcription '.
From the transcription in the narrower sense, the transliteration is to be distinguished as a text-based, literal, again reversible if required implementation of a word from one font to another, often with the help of diacritics. The skilled worker is the exact spelling of the word in other Scriptures are displayed, if this can not be shown in the original version ( for example, because no corresponding types or character sets are available).
Common applications for the transcription of spoken language, for example, in dialectology, where it is necessary, possible lautnah hold acoustic evidence in writing.
Tables of transcription and Transliterationssystemen: Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, Ukrainian, Belarusian
In Japanese it is called the transcription of Japanese into the Latin alphabet romaji ( Roman characters). There are several transcription systems. Two well-known and well recognized are the Hebon - shiki ( German Hepburn system) and the Kunrei - shiki (German Kunrei system). The former was spread by the American missionary James Curtis Hepburn and leans more to the actual pronunciation; The latter was conceived by the then Japanese government and follows the scheme of the kana table.
Examples: Japan's sacred mountain, the富士山, (often incorrectly called " Fuji " in the German play ), written:
After Kunrei system: Huzisan according to the Hepburn system: Mount Fuji
The reproduced in Latin transcription pronunciation of Hebrew is based today in most cases to the Israeli standard pronunciation. Local pronunciation forms, such Yemenite or Eastern, as well as historical pronunciation forms (eg Hebrew Bible ) are hardly considered in the inscription.
At what orthographic system, the representation of the orientated sounds depends on the writer and his cultural environment. About the word " shalom " can also shalom, Chalom, sjalom, szalom etc. are written, ie German, English, French, Dutch, Polish ... there is no generally accepted, mandatory standard. In scientific contexts, sometimes in the media today is dominated by a case that is based on English habits, at least in the area of consonants: sh for sh; z for voiced s; ts for z; h, also for kh ch etc. When vocalism outweighs the influence of German, as here, each letter has only one pronunciation: a, e, i, o, u Occasionally, nor French ou will find for u (often in the spelling of the name oriental Jews, in their countries, the French prevailed ); become more frequent lately in the English style spellings like oo ( u ) and ee ( i ). None of these systems is applied consistently, and none is able to represent all the sounds correctly. Think of the lack of distinction between voiced and voiceless s in German or in English between ch and h; Hebrew itself holds provides a separate letter for each of these sounds. Neither for the transcription of place names and personal names in Israeli passports, even for those on the Israeli street signs are uniform rules. A complicating factor here also the not Hebrew origin of many surnames; partly to write this as the country of origin, sometimes in " simplified ", ie today often anglicized form. In the case of a name as Weizman (s ), this means that transcription occurs Vaitsman. In studying the names of Israeli authors whose works have been translated into European languages , it can be seen that many, but not all authors adapt by far the spelling of her name in Latin letters, the reading habits of the country; see A. B. Yehoshua / A.B. Yehoshua, Amos Oz but consistently
Using the example of Hebrew, the difference between a purely phonological and morpho - phonological transcription of a can in addition show:
Kibuts vs. Qibbuṣ: The first transcription is the Israeli pronunciation again. The second addition is based on the Hebrew alphabet: q is the letter ק ( Kof ), whereas k is reserved for this system alone כּ ( kaf ). Kof and coffee were two different sounds in classical Hebrew; today they are pronounced the same, the distinction has preserved only in the orthography. The doubling of the b reflects a sound level that is no longer common today and for the classical case provides a point in the letter Bet. S shows the relationship with the etymologically related to volume S of the other Semitic languages; s therefore also reflects an older debate that has been lost in modern Hebrew and replaced by the sound of z (t ) has been. In the case of S, there is a character that appears in scientific transcription systems while aligning everyday transcription models usually alone on the Latin alphabet, without adding diacritical points for the specification. A common scientific notation form is also or hours for ch, as in Tapuah or Tapuah (apple). What is striking is the use of the hyphen, which often serves to separate along written Hebrew words into their components. Thus, for example jad bajad ( hand in hand ) also ba - yad yad be written.
Standards and widespread transcription systems
- DIN 1505-2: Title information from documents and citation
- DIN 31635: transcription of the Arabic into Latin script
- DIN 31636: transcription of the Hebrew into the Latin alphabet
- ALA - LC: the various writing systems in the Latin script, by the American Library Association ( ALA) and the U.S. Library of Congress ( LC) used
- BGN / PCGN: used in the various writing systems in the Latin alphabet, the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN ) and the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use ( PCGN )
- SASM / GNC: the various writing systems in the Latin alphabet ( and Others Pinyin for Chinese), used in the People's Republic of China for their national and minority languages