A schooner, or even Schooner schooner is originally a sailing vessel with two masts, the front mast is less than or equal to the rear ( aft ) mast. Later vessels with more than two masts were called savers (eg, three-masted schooner Amphitrite ); especially in the United States mehrmastige savers were built in the late 19th and early 20th century.
The front mast ( foremast ) of a schooner is also called schooner mast. The gaff sail on the schooner mast is called schooner sail, the gaff sail on the rear mast ( main mast ) mainsail. Before the schooner mast usually two jib sail and a foresail be driven.
Staysail schooner wear instead of the frame or gaff sail triangular Stag and the aft mast, a Bermuda sail. In addition, may be placed between the pole topping a " fisherman " called sails. At the foremast the usual headsail ( outer jib, jib, Vorstagsegel ) be driven. With this rigging the ships can sail at very high wind.
Most are three-masted staysail schooner, but there are also ships that carry different numbers of poles.
Two master, whose rear mast is the smaller, hot as opposed to the schooner ketch or yawl.
The first authentic launching of a schooner found in 1713 in Gloucester in Massachusetts ( about 50 km northeast of Boston) instead. A viewer should have stated at the launching: " There she scoons " or " Oh, see how she scoons " ( " As it slides down " or " Oh look, how it slides "). The builder of this ship, a captain Andrew Robinson, have then embossed the word " schooner ". Its name comes from a verb from the Scottish Clydesdale dialect from: "to scoon " (about " stones glide over the water ", also "slide" ). The origin of this Takelungsart comes from the Netherlands of the 17th century.
First saver only had two masts and were primarily with Rahtopp rigged ( topsail schooner ). They were fast ships and were in courier services, but also used to hunt pirates. Later, the pure Gaffelschoner developed with usually two or three, since 1864 four, since 1888 with five, since 1900, with six masts. These pads may not have a more yards, but the sails consisted exclusively of Schratsegeln ( gaff and the staysail ). For the operation of these sails from the deck only a small crew was needed, especially after steam-driven auxiliary units were used. Smaller saver served as fishing and Lotsenschoner ( Neufundlandschoner ). Were the famous race between the U.S. and Canadian fishing schooners, which were held in a controlled form since 1920. Legendary fame while the Canadian Bluenose of 1921.
In particular, the large four-, five -and six -masted schooner were ( 1900 ) used as cargo ships for coal, wood, oil, etc.. The largest ever built saver (steel) was the Thomas W. Lawson built in 1902 with seven masts, 25 sails and a crew of about 18 ( compared with about 45 men in a five-masted full-rigged ship as the Prussians ). As the largest wooden schooner, the 3,730 gross register tons (GRT ) 1909 Wyoming big ran in Bath in the State of Maine from the stack. She was the longest ever built wooden ship in the world and drove in coal transportation. Also noteworthy is the rigging of the five five-masted schooner in the Bremen shipping company FA Vinnen & Co. was with Marsrahtopp ( three sails at four yards ) on the foremast and the center pole (so-called Rahschoner ).
The Spanish training ship Juan Sebastian de Elcano, a four-masted topsail schooner ( Rahtopp ) is currently the largest schooner at sea.
By type of sail structure three types of pads can be distinguished. The hull design is the same for all versions.
Two - or three-masted schooner sail with construction on the first mast, mainsail on the second mast and, if present, Besangroßsegel on the third pole. In addition to the bowsprit internal, external jib and the jib itself be rigged. A Rahbesegelung is not provided.
Staysail schooner are dreimastig and zweimastig, the sail structure follows the principle saver. The trapezoidal sails are mutually arranged between the masts. So the sail complement each other and allow a faster ride from the wind. On the third mast Mizzen used.
Basically a staysail schooner, but with two Besansegeln called mizzen and mizzen gaff topsail. The means rigging is changed. In addition to the mainsail there is also a large gaff - topsail. On the first two mast topsail is set: the topsail at the top and the Vorbramsegel which is known of square-rigged ships.