Shahmukhi alphabet

Shahmukhi ( شاہ مکھی, Gurmukhi: ਸ਼ਾਹਮੁਖੀ, literally meaning " from the mouth of the King" ) is a regional variant of the Arabic alphabet, which is employed in writing of Punjabi, a language with main distribution in the Punjab in Pakistan and northern India, using.


Shahmukhi is based on the Nastaliq style of the Persian alphabet, how to write this from right to left and was traditionally written by the panjabischen Muslims in Pakistan and India. Since the mid-20th century, it is mainly used in the Punjab region of Pakistan. It is the official writing system of Punjabi language in Pakistan. In India, Punjabi is written in the Gurmukhi script.


  • The Gurmukhi sounds ñ ( ਞ ), ng ( ਙ ) and nh ( ੰ / ં ) are all written with ں ( Now -e ghunna, dot -free now ). In initial and middle position of the point is maintained.
  • ے (Bari ye) is only used in the final position before, when the sounds of e ( ਏ ) or æ ( ਐ ) can be written, and in initial and middle position it takes the form of ي.
  • There are three characters for the marking of a short vowel: ( ਅ ), ( ਉ ) and ( ਇ ): a, u and i Examples: قلم ( ਕ਼ਲਮ ) qalam (male), گھپ ( ਘੁਪ ) GHUP ( tight), لحاظ ( ਲਿਹਾਜ਼ ) lihāż (Recital )
  • At the beginning of a word short vowels are written as follows: ا, ا, ا
  • Long vowels are represented as follows with ا, ي, ے and و:
  • Consonants are doubled with ( ੱ ). Examples: الله ( ਅੱਲਾਹ ): Allah (God), كچا ( ਕੱਚਾ ): kachcha ( immature )

Additional letters

There are some additional, occasionally used letter:

  • ٻ bbe ( ੱਬ )
  • ڄ jje ( ੱਜ )
  • ڋ DDE ( ੱਡ )
  • ڰ ggaf ( ੱਗ )
  • ڻ rnoonh ( ਣ )


In Punjabi there, especially in the western dialects, many Arab and Persian loanwords.

Since many of the Arabic lute can not be represented in the Devanagari -based, so rather for the lute Indo-Iranian languages ​​optimized Gurmukhi script, the Shahmukhi script is much better suited for this purpose.

Arabic letters

ذ ص ض ط ظ ع غ ح ث

Persian letters

گ چ پ ژ

Arabic -Persian letters

خ ز ف ق