The important for the Fiqh Islamic Arabic term Shirk (Arabic شرك, DMG Sirk ) means Beigesellung, idolatry, polytheism, idolatry, idolatry, or the like. He comes from the root š - rk "participating " the basic meaning, "Share- have " bears. Shirk is to say, to let others participate or else on the oneness of God: aschraka ( أشرك ). Antonym is Tawheed ( Tawheed توحيد ) - " monotheism " - derived from the root w -h -d ( وحد ): " only or to be alone ."
Islam does not tolerate polytheism, such as the worship of another god or a supplication (du ʿ ā ʾ ) to this.
Shirk in the Quran
In the Quran, Shirk and the polytheists ( Mushrikun ) are not yet addressed in the Meccan verses. In the verbal confrontations of Revelation with polytheism is pointed in the Medinan verses, especially on penalties to the Gentiles in the afterlife. Shirk is the worst form of unbelief. In Sura 4, verse 48 (see also Sura 4, verse 116 ), this is clearly expressed:
"God does not forgive that beige makes him ( other gods ). What lies beneath, he forgives if he wishes. If one ( the one ) God ( other gods ) beige, provided he makes ( it) concocted a tremendous sin. "
The final break with the Gentiles occurs in Sura 9, verse 28:
" O you who believe! The Pagans are unclean. Therefore, they should not come near the holy place of worship after the current year ... "
In general, one understood at the time of the Prophet Mohammed under shirk the idolatry of the Arabs in the Arabian Peninsula, which manifested itself in the worship of stones, trees and other Natureinscheinungen. Islamic tradition according to the will in the Kaaba in Mecca around 360 idols ( sanam / plural Asnam ) have been set up around the main idol Hubal, which were destroyed in the days of the conquest of Mecca by the Muslims. About the Cult of the pre-Islamic Arabs in and around Mecca informed a little book, which has become known until 1924, the so-called idol book of Ibn al - Kalbi.
Shirk in the legal literature
In the Islamic legal literature takes the place of blasphemers - " polytheist ", " Heather" - the comprehensive term kaafir - " infidels." Christians and Jews, but because they are just like Muslims to " the one and only God " believe not to the unbelievers. However, in Islamic theology, the doctrine of the Trinity is also rejected as Shirk and the Christians for this reason often referred to as Mushrikun.
Is it forbidden in orthodox Islam to ask angel or a local saint for help, this is seen on the part of the Sufis ( Islamic mystics ) may be different. Even in popular Islam, there are various forms of veneration of saints.
The Wahhabis represented since the 18th century, a broad interpretation of the concept of Shirk and in particular expressed the local veneration of saints. Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab - saw through the veneration of saints and the prophets Unna the original purity of Islam distorted and condemned it in all its manifestations as innovations. Similarly, the visiting of graves and sacred sites, intercessions or Eidleistungen at the grave of a saint, and fought Applied Healing Practices in popular Islam. Groups with like, or identical views are, for example, the Deobandis, Ahl -i hadith Kadizadeli or Muhammadiyah.
In Islamic ethics, in al -Ghazali, Shirk has a special meaning - selfishness, arrogance and hypocritical worship, so as to win the favor and admiration of others, is Shirk.