A Handzuginstrument ( accordion ) is a musical instrument with a bellows that produced by the flattening and mounting an air stream to bring sweeping tongues to vibrate and thus produce sounds. Therefore accordions are among the aerophones, in particular the harmonica instruments.

To name the group

Today, in general, the name of the accordion modern forms is used. The concertina and bandoneon are varieties of accordions.

The expression Handzuginstrument ' is a new German term for this group of instruments. The oldest name for this group of instruments is actually harmonica ', this name can be seen on the development of accordions from the Physharmonica ( precursor of the harmonium ).

Above all, it is called concertina, whereby the difference between these instruments to instruments with bellows is clear that generates its desired effect only upon compression, while accordions can be played even when pulling the bellows, as the air flows through the Tonkanzellen both one from. Also to the other instruments harmonica (mouth, Blasharmonikas and mouth organs without bellows, and the piano - and organ-like Konzertinstumenten in the style of harmonium, and many other forms ) differentiated the term.

Colloquial and vernacular terms for such instruments are Zugharmonie, Maurer piano or Schifferklavier, Ziehamriemen, bavarian dialect Raunl, disrespectful and squeezebox, Wanzenquetsche and others. In folk music, the accordions were popular, because they represented the first practical replacement for the bagpipes, the zither, which is very difficult to play and is sensitive and can only be played sitting down, it has largely replaced.

Historical Overview 1800-1830

Main article: → History of the reed

An overview of the inventions 1800-1830 can be found in a book of 1869. Therein are mentioned by Harmonikainstumenten even more exotic names that you can see only in museums.

"The time of whimsical novel Iustrumente which appeared so many of the late 18th century was by no means at an end. In the first 2l years, we still find a strong supply, mostly in varieties of the piano and glass harmonica, and combinations thereof consisting. First it was the celebrated muse of the glass harmonica, the blind Marianne Kirch Gassner, which in the year 1800 recently came to Vienna and gave two concerts. Your instrument at that time was still very much in favor. ( In Prague, accompanied in 1808 in a charitable - Koncert Mr. Maschek the dream of Franz Moor, from the " predators " on the harmonica! ) In the year 1805 the Viennese instrument maker Müller -Produced improved by him ( Röllig'sche ) " Xänorphita " which, like a piano played, the harmony of a violin quartet imitated. Mr. Posch also played in the same year on the same instrument. A new Harmonica Combination was the Panmelodion which the inventor Leppich, jointly with Conradin Kreutzer -Produced in the Augarten (1810 ). The main point was a componirtes of Kreutzer poem " the emergence of harmony " sung by Mr. and Madame Ehlers, with accompaniment of Panmelodions. In the following year appeared Hr. Quick with his instrument " Amenocorde " and 1815 the mechanic and pianist Leonh. Mälzel ( brother of the more famous John i. Nepomuk Mälzel ) with his " Orpheus harmony ", a composition of steel rods and violin bow with keyboard, used steel accordion and Xänorphila. What still appears in the Jahrzehent 1820-1830 of this kind fancy instruments are mere echoes of the last of a dying direction. Except Leppich 's, in 1822, and recently in Erinneruug gebrachtem " Panmelodion ", appeared in 1825 Clavierabart, the name " Sirenion " on, played by the inventor Promberger and his l3 -year-old son, finally in the same year the " Claveoline " (one of Eschenbach invented kind Physharmonica with whistles, keys and pedal ) played by liquor from Cassel. Franz Xaver Gebauer, founder of the " Spirituel - concerts " At first made ​​his fortune in Vienna by his skill on the harmonica. In times of musical machines was the mechanic John Nepomuk Mälzel, the famous inventor of the metronome, the brim. He -Produced in Vienna in 1809, his " mechanical trumpeter " (which is the impetus for the perfect trumpeter automata Kaufmann's in Dresden was ), then repeated in later years (most recently in 1828 in the Augarten ) its composed of thirty-six trumpets " trumpet machine". On another mechanic, farmer, visited Vienna in 1829 with his " Orchestrion ". With similar instruments and playing levels has later only Ms Kaufmann had success, especially with his excellent " Harmonichord " ( clavirartigen a keyboard instrument) and the " Chordaulodion " (flute strings vocals). In general, attention must be given dwindled rapidly, and the above-mentioned numerous Fantasy instruments were lost in 1830 to the name. A new instrument is in favor at the beginning of the twenties on the musical scene: the Physharmonica. The No. 30 of the Vienna music newspaper from 1821, first reported the invention of this instrument by the Viennese instrument maker Anton Hackel. Hieronimus Paier, composer and piano teacher in Vienna, the first publicly -Produced Physharmonica, with specially componirten of him pieces ( Fantasy and Variations ) in the Wohlthäigkeitsakademie in Kärntnerthortheater at l5. November 1824. Payer 's game did really well, he was called and led the inventor A. Hackel out with. Soon after, Lidl moved to the Physharmonica and read with a self componirten "Serenade" on Pentecost Sunday in 1823 at the Carinthian theater to hear publicly for the first time. Since then Vienna has remained the Physharmonica by thirty years Lidl 's artistic monopoly; admirable virtuoso on this instrument, he has also created a formal literature for the same so as not to rough road to say " the same literature ". "


The sounds produced by the breakdown tongues in both the flattening as well as in drawing the bellows is one of the most important features of accordions. Related Balginstrumente as the harmonium and the precursor Physharmonica differ in this respect. Originally, the reeds were called springs.