Stoneware#History and notable examples

Stoneware, invented in the 18th century in England, refers to a group of ceramic products with porous body, which can be divided into the subgroups lime or soft earthenware, feldspar or hard earthenware and stoneware mixing on.

Stoneware is usually clay, quartz, feldspar, and optionally other minerals such as calcite. The products are usually formed in the casting process. The firing temperature is 970-1320 ° C lower than the sintering stuff. The color of the ceramic material varies from white to light reddish brown. Due to the low firing temperature of the shards can not fully sinter and thus is not unlike stoneware waterproof. Therefore stoneware is usually provided with a mutually applied glaze. It is transparent, often contains lead and is melted in a second fire at about 100 ° C lower temperatures. The painting or the frequent Umdruckdekor be applied to the dry pots in front of the glaze firing. However, there are also on-glaze decoration techniques.

Characteristics and usage

Stoneware enjoys to this day not only because of the cost-effective production, but also its porcelain -like performance characteristics, high demand and popularity. Earthenware, however, impact-sensitive than porcelain and not as pure white in shards. Even more clearly, it differs from stoneware, with which it is often confused linguistically because of the wording. However, the physical differences are clear: stoneware belongs to the class sintering stuff, it is waterproof, has a darker, harder ( bright sounding ) shards and is rarely as smooth and thin as glazed earthenware. Only products from more recent times there by similar designs and same glazing techniques demarcation problems for porcelain stoneware. Historical earthenware utensils are often unsightly, because spread in the craquelure of the glaze stains caused by grease and liquid. The main application of stoneware is the tableware since the beginning. In the 19th century household items were added: the indispensable washing utensils and all kinds of storage boxes, bread boxes, etc. Specialized manufacturer finished since the late 19th century, wall tiles and decorative elements from this material.

Cultural history of stoneware

The English model

In the potteries of Staffordshire earthenware a similar mass was developed around 1720, on the basis of white clay and an addition of silica flour producing a very bright, hard and light in weight because thin moldable ceramic body allowed. About Local and soon beyond England effective importance was the new technology, as Josiah Wedgwood this, the porcelain approximate material enhanced by the addition of kaolin. His company, founded in 1757 soon took to industrial coatings. At the same time he created a new earthenware style by following the change in taste of his contemporaries to classicism and was inspired by antique models.

To 1765, he presented for the first time cream ware ago, a rahmfarbenes earthenware. His thin glazing material allowed the fineness of the relief more clearly. The delivery of food services at Queen Charlotte also coined the term Queens -ware. Not quite applicable to the earthenware are often struck even those with Wedgwood primarily in connection accommodated, known as basalt goods and Jasper Ware, biscuit -like, unglazed and colored ceramic products that would be classified correctly with " stoneware " or " soft-paste porcelain ". Stoneware with its new forms and techniques was imitated in England and on the continent soon. The determination of the origin of individual pieces, often to determine uniquely estimated from the dry or blind stamp is often difficult for English export goods as they facilitate trade at customs over, was often not marked. This was mainly practiced during the continental blockade.

Earthenware in Germany

1775 presented the faience factory in Rendsburg on earthenware to about 25 other German followed until 1800. The continental blockade favored the establishment of a pottery industry on the continent. Some of the goods were traditionally painted in Fayencemanier, but English cream ware was imitated most. The ornament with Umdruckdekoren (England since 1755, France since about 1808, in Germany in 1815 for the first time used) took in the 19th century to much, with the already developed in England and related in other countries basic pattern of a combination of pictorial representations with decorative elaborate braids remains remarkably constant. For more everyday harnesses was also resorted to stenciling, stamping or spraying technology. In a large scale and at a high artistic level wall panels were made ​​of earthenware produced (eg from Villeroy & Boch ) since the mid-19th century. One of the leading providers of sophisticated framed use device made ​​of stoneware in the early decades of the 20th century was the Waechtersbach. In southern Hesse restaurants a Bembel is for dispensing cider often used an earthenware pot with salt glaze in gray color, usually decorated with blue patterns.

German and Austrian earthenware manufactories and factories

The following selection preference lists the early German factories that allow references ( links) to relevant further reading. The trailing annual figures refer to the year of creation or conversion of faience earthenware on production.

  • Althaldensleben, porcelain factory Nathusius, 1813, see also Nathusius commercial establishments Althaldensleben
  • Anna Castle, (1874-1883)
  • Aschaffenburg, Steingutfabrik to Damm, 1827
  • Bonn, Poppelsdorf porcelain and earthenware factory Ludwig Wessel, until 1969 in the village
  • Frankfurt / Oder, Steingutfabrik Paetsch,
  • Biehla ( Elsterwerda ), 1900
  • Bremen- Grohn, North German stoneware, 1869
  • Bremen- Farge, Steingutfabrik Witteburg, 1853-1958
  • Gersweiler ( 1846-1901 )
  • Hubertusburg (Saxony), 1770
  • Ludwigsburg, 1780
  • Meissen Teichert - works, since 1891 wall plates
  • Mettlach, Vaudrevange: Villeroy & Boch ( merger 1836)
  • Neulautern, 1850
  • Ottweiler (Saarland), 1776-1800
  • Ratingen, Kolo ( sanitary ware ), 1903
  • Reichenbach (Landkreis Cham), 1841-1863
  • Rheinberg (Brandenburg), 1762
  • Sander village ( Altmannsteinstrasse ), 1831
  • Schramberger majolica factory, 1820
  • Varel, Friesland porcelain factory (formerly Melitta ), 1953
  • Waechtersbach, 1832
  • Vienna, (Joseph Hardtmuth ), "Wiener earthenware ", 1789
  • William Castle, ÖSPAG, 1865
  • Wrisbergholzen, late 18th century


Musée national de céramique - Sèvres (French earthenware) First German Tile Museum Boizenburg ( shows earthenware tiles from 1880 to 1930 ) Castle Maupas (France) Aschaffenburg, Schloss Johannesburg, ( Dammer earthenware)