Tyana

37.82344534.570473Koordinaten: 37 ° 49 ' 24 "N, 34 ° 34' 14" E

Tyana is an ancient city in Cappadocia, now Kemerhisar south of Nigde (Turkey).

Hittites

You probably corresponds to the Hittite Tuwanuwa that appears in the list of conquests of the early King Labarna I.. In Assyrian sources it is called Tuhana. Chief god of Tuwanuwa was the weather god, his name is not known. His wife is referred to alternately as Sahassaras, Huwassanas and Tasimis. Here also a center of worship of God Hatti was Wurunkatti ( lord of the land ), which is also confirmed with the Sumerian name Zababa. On the rock relief of Ivriz from late Hittite period (probably 8th century BC) is shown with the God Tarhunzas a king Warpalawas of Tuwana.

Hellenistic era

In the Hellenistic period, as Cappadocia was an independent kingdom, Tyana was next to the king seat Mazaca in the north to the two national centers. The city was wrested from Ariaramnes in the 260s years BC the Seleucids and later, after King Ariarathes V. Eusebes Philopator (reigned 163-130 BC approximately ) also called " Eusebeia on Tauros ."

Roman period

As Cappadocia AD 17 finally lost its independence, it was converted into the Roman province of Cappadocia, to which also belonged Tyana. Under Emperor Caracalla in the city of Cappadocia great Roman colony. She joined in the revolt of Zenobia and was reconquered by Aurelian, who, however, treated the city mildly. 371 it was under Valens capital of Cappadocia Secunda.

Late Roman and Byzantine period

In 372 Emperor Valens divided the province of Cappadocia in two, and Tyana became the capital of Cappadocia Secunda. During late antiquity the city as Christoupolis (Greek Χριστούπολις " city of Christ" ) was known.

As a result of the Islamic expansion and the establishment of the new border between the Byzantine Empire and the Caliphate along the Taurus Mountains Tyana became an important military base, as it was on the road from Anatolia to Cilicia and Syria near the Cilician Gate ( approx. 30 km north ). Therefore, the city was often the target of Muslim Plünderzüge. The town was first sacked by the Umayyads in 708, after a long siege and thereafter remained deserted for a time, until it was rebuilt. It was then occupied by the Abbasid Caliph Harun al -Rashid in the year 806. Harun transformed the city into a military camp, where he built a mosque, the city was evacuated but after the Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus I had bought a peace. The city was destroyed again by the Abbasids under Al-Abbas ibn al - Ma'mun in 831. Abbas left the city to rebuild and remodel three years later in preparation for al - Ma'mun planned conquest of the Byzantine Empire in a military camp, but after Ma'mun 's sudden death in August 833, the plan was abandoned and the half-finished city was destroyed again.

After the city fell, with the gradual waning of the Arab threat. The ruins of Tyana are located near the modern Turkish city Kemerhisar, where you will find the remains of an ancient Roman aqueduct and of cave tombs and grave caves.

The finds from Tyana and from the nearby settlement mound Köşk Höyük can be seen in the Archaeological Museum of Nigde.

Roman water basin at the former east end of the aqueduct

Excavations at the west end of the aqueduct

Finds from Tyana in the Museum of Nigde

Church History

Eutherius Bishop of Tyana was at the Council of Ephesus 431 the leader of the Nestorian fraction and was therefore deposed, excommunicated and had to go into exile shortly. As Firmus of Caesarea, who had participated in his excommunication by Tyana came to consecrate his successor to him both the citizens of the city as well as stationed here Isaurian troops under Longras, and Firmus and the newly ordained bishop resisted, the then again returned to private life, had to flee. Eutherius was eventually banished to Scythopolis (Palestine, Beth-Shean ) and to Tyre, where he died.

The name continues to exist as a Catholic Titularerzbistum.

Famous citizens

  • Apollonius of Tyana (* 40, † 120 )
  • Bishop Anthimos
  • Bishop Eutychios, represented at the Council of Nicaea
  • Bishop Theodoros, a friend of John Chrysostom
  • Bishop Eutherius

Swell

  • Strabo, Geographika XII, 537; XIII, 587
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